Ancient Philosophy
and the Classical Tradition

A Journal of the Centre for Ancient Philosophy
and the Classical Tradition

ISSN 1995-4328 (Print) ISSN 1995-4336 (Online)


David Hernández Castro
National Distance Education University (UNED), Spain
Language: English
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 13.2 (2019) 430-450
Keywords: Apollo, Delphi, Hesiod, narrative structures, sacrifices.
Abstract. This article examines the relationship between Hesiod and Empedocles through a comparative analysis of the Prometheus and Pandora myth and the Queen Cypris narrative. The author sustains that correspondences between the works of Hesiod and Empedocles can be interpreted through the framework of overlapping narrative structures, which would help to establish the order of the fragments. The relationship between Empedocles and Hesiod is polemic due to the fact that they belong to rival schools of wisdom. In the case of Empedocles, that school emanated from the Sanctuary of Apollo in Delphi.

Dmitri Panchenko
Saint-Petersburg State University; Higher School of Economics in Saint-Petersburg
Language: English
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 13.2 (2019) 451-462
Keywords: Athena, Tritogeneia, Poseidon, trident, triads, mythology.
Abstract. The name Tritogeneia likely means ‘born of the Third’, this Third one being the supreme god, the Most High. Poseidon (at least Poseidon Helikonios) was once such a god. He was the lord of the water that descended from heaven and a deity closely associated with the celestial pole. His trident is the symbol that indicates his celestial nature, and this symbol developed from a previous one – a raised hand with three fingers. This number of fingers signified the similarity with the dwellers of the sky – the birds, with their three toes in front.

Dmitry Kurdybaylo
Russian Christian Academy for the Humanities; Saint Petersburg State University;
The Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia
Language: English
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 13.2 (2019) 463-485
Keywords: Proclus, Theologia platonica, Platonic Theology, Neoplatonism, symbol, synthēma, theurgy, ontology, myth.
Abstract. Many recent studies propose that symbolon and synthēma are synonymous in the writings of Proclus. However, his Platonic Theology contains reliable evidence to put this opinion to doubt. The goal of this research is to determine the meaning of both terms from the contexts of their usage, engaging the textual analysis and the following philosophical reconstruction. As distinguished from a symbol, a synthēma has substantial nature, is stable and remains invariable when is discovered at different levels of the ontological hierarchy. In the Platonic Theology, a symbol is often considered in terms of the hierarchic level, where it appears: in the material world, it is corporeal; among numbers, it is ontologically irrelevant, the intelligible realm contains its proper symbols as well. A significant difference between symbolon and synthēma is related to the dialectics of participation: synthēma in an object keeps it on an unparticipated level, while a symbol implies further participation to a symbolic object. Finally, a synthēma is described as “disseminated,” “planted,” or in any other way hidden in the being; while a symbol is “discovered,” or found in the being, therefore synthēma may be considered an inner kernel of what is discovered as a symbol, and a symbol — as an outward expression of a synthēma. Such understanding of these terms agrees with both exegetical and theurgic contexts in Proclus’ Platonic Theology.

Christos Ath. Terezis
University of Patras, Greece
Language: English
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 13.2 (2019) 486-502
Keywords: Proclus, Education, Practical Reason, Alcibiades I, Respublica, Aristotle.
Abstract. This historical and systematic study discusses in the form of a reconstructive proposal the system of the general epistemological principles followed by the eclecticist Proclus, who attempts to organize and present questions on Education directly associated with Practical Reason. From the methodological point of view, the example emerged from his commentary on the Platonic dialogues Alcibiades I and Respublica for providing instruction is multidimensional and holistic and aims at a complete transformation of human personality. The foundation for any philosophical and political approach, as constantly stressed, is that human is a special and unique being that can be able to influence decisively the social status. Considering the content of the study, we are discussing, mainly from a historical point of view, the position and the purpose of Education in Late Hellenistic Period, as well as Proclus’ contribution to the disciplines of Anthropology and Ethics, which are closely related to the objectives of Education. We complete the study with some further remarks with regard to the deepest meaning of Proclus’ proposal and the possibility to implement it in these days. The above-mentioned are not presented as final conclusions, but as questions-inquiries, in order to propose an internally developing methodology for investigating.

Eka Avaliani
International Black Sea University, Tbilisi (Georgia)
Language: English
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 13.2 (2019) 503-512
Keywords: The luxury golden ring with a carnelian intaglio, an engraved Greek inscription, Roman Orient, a Roman empress, the Roman royal woman.
Abstract. This paper offers a novel interpretation of the luxury golden ring with a carnelian intaglio depicting a woman's profile and an engraved Greek inscription, ΒΑCIΛICCΑ ΟΥΛΠIAΝΑ(Ζ)IA (or AΣIA E.A.), found in cist grave 14, in Mtskheta, Georgia, dated to the Roman period, the 3rd century AD. In consideration of the then contemporary political situation in the Mediterranean and Roman East, through the putting and interpreting sources into broad historical context, the author identifies the female individual as the Roman Empress Ulpia Severina. The very inclusion of royal woman within public propaganda during this period signifies her prominence within, and significance outside of, the imperial metropolis. This deliberate inclusion proved to the public that this empress was not mere figurehead but could have been a very influential person in the Empire.

Alexei Gloukhov
Higher School of Economics (Moscow)
Language: English
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 13.2 (2019) 513-536
Keywords: Plato, tragedy, truth, reversal, the good, justice.
Abstract. The paper provides a historical background for the “reversal” concept of truth. In Attic drama, Plato found a way to approach the problem of conflict between the good and justice. By overcoming deficiencies of tragic representations, Plato came to understand human reality as a complex plot, prone to a complete change. His philosophical solution consisted of two steps: the birth of a proper narrative of the good and the verification of this narrative by a corresponding common narrative of justice. This verification is the basis for the reversal concept of truth, traces of which are operative also in Descartes and Heidegger.

Svetlana Mesyats
RAS Institute of philosophy (Moscow)
Language: English
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 13.2 (2019) 537-553
Keywords: Goethe’s Farbenlehre, apparent colors, primordial phenomenon, light and darkness, Aristotle’s color theory, transparent medium, vision, acting and being affected.
Abstract. J.W. Goethe in his Farbenlehre deduced all physical colors from a simple primordial phenomenon that takes place every time light and darkness act through a semi-transparent colorless medium either on our eyes or on the opposite surfaces. This basic rule of Goethe’s color theory was criticized by his contemporary physicists, who argued that darkness could not play an active role in the origin of colors because of being a mere absence of light. The paper demonstrates that this criticism became possible only if one shares the Newtonian view on the nature of light and darkness. Goethe however held a more traditional point of view, which he traced back to Antiquity and Aristotle. In contrast to Newton and his followers, previous scientists considered light not as an immediate cause of colors but as an actually transparent medium that conveyed colors from the visible objects to the organ of sight. For vision to take place, the color must first affect the light, which in its turn, must affect the faculty of vision. Though it is difficult to say what kind of change the light undergoes when some colored object is seen through it, most Aristotle commentators agree that this change must be real and not mere relational. In Aristotle’s physics, however, things that are capable of acting on and being affected by one another are either contraries or consist of contraries. Therefore, to be visible the color must be either dark or to contain darkness. Thus, assuming that Goethe shared the Aristotelian concept of light, we have to conclude that he was not mistaken saying that darkness "acts” upon our eyes or “is seen through” the illuminated semi-transparent medium.

Mikhail V. Egorochkin
RAS Institute of Philosophy (Moscow)
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 13.2 (2019) 554-579
Keywords: Presocratics, Xenophanes of Colophon, ancient Greek cosmology, infinity, elements, the first principle, earth, the ancient concept of the universe.
Abstract. The article for the first time summarizes the views of Xenophanes of Colophon on the earth, its structure and location in the Universe. The most interesting of the fragments devoted to the topic is the fragment B 28, in which Xenophanes, according to the most ancient and modern interpreters, considers the earth to be infinite. The author demonstrates, however, that this interpretation can hardly be correct because Xenophanes speaks not about the infinity of the lower part of the earth, but its lower limit going to infinity. Trying to find out what Xenophanes means by infinity, the author shows that this concept implies both spatial and epistemological uncertainty, so that everything which goes beyond human experience, can be called infinite. Not only the lower part of the earth is infinite in this sense, but also its surface which encompasses many different regions seen as separate worlds, as well as the air going beyond the limits of visibility. Analyzing the testimonies of Pseudo-Plutarch and Hippolytus, the author shows that the Earth’s surface could have been initially made of mud which then was dried and condensed by air and fire. This solid upper part of the Earth, which can be called earth in the narrow sense of the word, can be considered as one of the four elements. However, taken as a whole the Earth of Xenophanes should not be understood as an Aristotelian first principle. Rather it represents the cosmos, that determines the measure of human knowledge, and which can be therefore described by the ancient dictum “all things are Earth” (Arist. Met. A 8, 989a 9–10).

Andrej Yu. Mozhajsky
Moscow State Pedagogical University
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 13.2 (2019) 580-595
Keywords: Xenophon, Thebans, Boeotians, Hellenika, Plataea, Oropus.
Abstract. It is traditionally considered that Xenophon intentionally suppresses the image of the Theban commanders in his work “Hellenika”, where even Epaminondas - the winner of The Battle of Leuctra – is not mentioned by name. The suppression of the commanders is often explained by his disaffection towards the Thebans, because of his participance in The Battle of Coronea supporting Sparta against the Thebans. Furthermore, he lost his son Gryllus fighting the Thebans at Mantinea. At our point of view, this negative judgement of Xenophon’s view on Thebes and the Thebans is explained first of all by Athens’ traditional education, which created a negative literary tradition towards Thebes. The literary tradition was established long before Xenophon’s existence and continued after him. The tradition was established as response to the border conflicts between the Thebans and the Athenians, that continued during archaic and classical periods of the history of Greece. The anti-Theban literary tradition is also supported by evidence of material culture, namely the border system of defense. Studying these materials, allows us to conclude that at the time of Xenophon, in the first half of the 4th century BC, at a time when their oppositions escalated against each other, the Athenians and the Thebans literally observed each other over the fortress walls. With regard to Xenophon, his hatred against the Thebans is mostly visible in his work “Hellenika”. The main argument that Xenophon uses is retelling of Pelopidas’ speech that he gives at the court of the Persian king, where the first thing he mentions is the Thebans’ pro-Persian attitude. Epaminondas is mentioned in the “Hellenika” only in episodes of his career as a commander where he cannot achieve his goals or develop past success.

Eugene A. Makovetsky
Saint Petersburg State University
Alexander S. Drikker
Saint Petersburg State University
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 13.2 (2019) 596-616
Keywords: Second Sophistic, Art of Memory, Plato's Meno and Phaedrus, Rhetoric.
Abstract. The Imagines of Philostratus the Elder is a well-known monument of the Second Sophistic. The book has a rich manuscript and publishing history. No less significant is the research tradition that has developed around the Imagines. Our goal is to try to answer the following question: Can the Imagines be considered as a source for the art of memory? In this regard, we intend to solve two problems at once: first, to find elements of the art of memory in the text of the book, and second, to determine the degree of probability with which the Imagines can be considered as a textbook on the art of memory.

Sergey Kocherov
Higher School of Economics (Nizhny Novgorod)
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 13.2 (2019) 617-626
Keywords: the crisis of the polis, freedom and slavery, mind and delights, power over yourself, spiritual freedom.
Abstract. This paper aims at analyzing the differences in views on human freedom as seen in Socrates’ argument with the sophist Callicles and his own pupil Aristippus. These differences reflect sociocultural issues that emerged amid the crisis of the classical polis, and called for rethinking an antinomy between freedom and slavery, typical of antiquity. While Socrates emerges victorious in both discussions, his understanding of freedom is not devoid of contradictions, stipulated by an attempt to combine freedom of a thinking person with the traditional unity of a civic community. At the same time, this debate brings to light a new dimension of human freedom that allows a human being to stay true to oneself even in a poorest social environment, namely one’s spiritual freedom.

Igor Larionov
Vadim Perov
Vladislav Semenov
Saint-Petersburg State University
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 13.2 (2019) 627-636
Keywords: virtuous person, dignity, classical slavery, wage labor in antiquity, freedom
Abstract. This paper discusses the relation of the concepts of slavery and wage labor in classical antiquity. The authors emphasize the dependence of this relation on the conception of a free citizen with the moral ideal of freedom at its center. The article attempts to provide a new explanation of the essence of classical slavery, which takes into account the ethical attitudes of ancient society. As the main thesis, it has been proved that according to the moral ideal of a free person in antiquity, hired labor was more despised than slavery.

Vladimir Brovkin
Institute of Philosophy and Law SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 13.2 (2019) 637-647
Keywords: Euhemerus, Epicurus, Theodorus the Godless, Bion of Borysthenes, Cult of Kings, Olympian religion, religious syncretism, crisis of polis.
Abstract. This article discusses the socio-historical conditions of the formation of criticism of religious representations in Greek philosophy in the period of early Hellenism. It is established that the formation of this criticism according to Epicurus, Theodorus, Bion and Euhemerus was influenced by the following factors. First, it is the rapid development of the cult of Hellenistic kings. Secondly, it is the emergence of new influential gods, the growing popularity of the Eastern gods in Greece, and religious syncretism. Thirdly, it is a gradual weakening of the traditional cult of the Olympian gods. Fourthly, it is the crisis of the polis, which contributed to the growth of individualism, weakening of religious and moral norms.

Alexander Sanzhenakov
Institute of Philosophy and Law SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 13.2 (2019) 648-656
Keywords: Aristotle, metaphysics, first philosophy, ethics, essence, activity, contemplation, intellect, unmoved mover, happiness, highest good.
Abstract. The article is devoted to the analysis of the problem of the relationship of ethics and metaphysics. The majority of the researchers believe that metaphysics precedes and determines ethics. It means that key concepts of ethics are based on the concepts of metaphysics. In Aristotle’s philosophy such metaphysical concepts are the “essence”, “form” and “activity” or “actuality”. The difficult question is whether ethics can be the first philosophy. The author identifies four criteria that Aristotle’s ethics must meet in order to be the first philosophy. Ethics must (1) deal with the first principles and causes, (2) give the universal knowledge, (3) deal with the most valuable subject, (4) be a commander discipline. It is obvious that the part of ethics that concerns moral virtues does not meet these criteria. However, the first philosophy is closer to that part of ethics, which concerns the intellectual virtues, and especially it concerns sophia – the highest virtues of the rational part of the soul. In this case, we can speak about merging of ethical and metaphysical discourses.

Pavel Butakov
Tomsk State University
Institute of Philosophy and Law, Novosibirsk
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 13.2 (2019) 657-669
Abstract. The appropriationist approach to history of philosophy is often accused of being antihistorical and thus unreliable. The appropriationists are only concerned with their own philosophical problems, and they make discriminating use of the historical data as far as it serves their needs. Its rival, the contextualist approach, claims to be an honest, dedicated and reliable treatment of history. The contextualists are willing to make use of the tedious methodology of Classical studies as long as it promises to uncover the true historical data. In this paper I present a case where the contextualists have failed to surpass their rival appropriationists in their quest for veracity. The case is the debate about Aristotle’s De Interpretatione 9, which took place in 1950-1980s. In this debate the contextualists were unable to offer any other results except for those which have already been suggested by the appropriationists. In addition I demonstrate how the contextualists selectively used the arsenal of Classical methodology not to uncover the truth, but to justify their own preconceived interpretations.
Keywords: Aristotle, De interpretatione 9, history of ancient philosophy, Classical studies, appropriationism, contextualism.

Elena Alymova
Saint-Petersburg State University
Svetlana Karavaeva
North-West State Medical University
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 13.2 (2019) 670-682
Keywords: Socratics, Socratic Schools, Philosophical School, Diogenes Laertius
Abstract. This article deals with a problem of relevance of the investigation of such a philosophical and cultural phenomenon of the Antiquity as the Socratic Schools. In this connection we treat as a problem the concept of Philosophical School in the Ancient world, analyze the phenomena of σχολή, διατριβή and αἵρεσις, distinguish these phenomena from the phenomenon of school as a specially organized society. We go into details of the Introduction of the famous doxographic work of Diogenes Laertius and on the basis of scrutiny of the terminology used by him we elucidate his interpretation of the phenomenon of Philosophical School.

Roman Svetlov
The Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia
Shevtsov Konstantin
St. Petersburg State University of Civil Aviation
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 13.2 (2019) 683-694
Key words: Skepticism, Academy, Plato, Liar paradox.
Abstract. The subject of the research is the question of what texts of Plato could become a stimulus for the formation of skeptical ideas in the Academy. Can we, in particular, raise the question of the presence in the texts of Plato of something similar to the principle of the “epoche”, which is the most important methodological sign of skepticism? Can be compared with skepticism the elenchic strategy of Socrates? In our opinion, there are a number of moments in the works of Plato, which brings him closer to skeptical discourse (although this does not make him a skeptic). We dwell only on two of them. The first is the ability of the protagonists of his dialogues to hold in their arguments the two opposite sides of the subject in their undoubted difference and, at the same time, in mutual necessity. This is the Platonic dialectic in its true expression, examples of which we see in the Sophistes and the Parmenides. The second specific aspect of Plato's thought is in the formulation by Plato of a number of logical paradoxes. In its classic version, it became known, however, a little later, in the works of representatives of the Megarian school. We shall deal in more detail with the paradox of the liar, or “the thesis of Epimenides”, which is often seen as a classic example of a self-referential statement. The article will show analogies to the paradox of the liar in Plato's texts. The key point is the last argument from the Theaetetus, where Socrates examines the definition of knowledge as a true opinion with the addition of a specifying attribute (Thaet 201c-208d), as well as the 7th and 8th hypotheses of the Parmenides (Parm. 164b-166c). It seems to us that this moment of the Platonic dialectic also turns out to be a definite resource for the future “skeptical turn” in the Academy. Especially in the situation when the dialogues of Plato were discussed in terms of interest in the arguments of Pyrrho and the Megarians, for whom paradoxes were one of the important methodological tools.

Nadezhda Volkova
RAS Institute of Philosophy (Moscow)
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 13.2 (2019) 695-704
Key words: Protagoras, Plato, Sextus Empiricus, criterion of truth, relativism.
Abstract. The article is about an interpretation of the concept of Measure in the famous thesis of Protagoras (TP) “Man is the Measure of all things” as a criterion of knowledge. The main purpose of this work is to show how the concept of “measure” was gradually transformed into the criterion of truth. The answer to this question can be found in the relevant passages of Plato’s “Theaetetus” and Sextus Empiricus’ “Adversus Mathematicos” and “Outlines of Pyrrhonism”. In the “Theaetetus” Plato represents “the secret doctrine” of Protagoras. According to Ugo Zilioli this doctrine is a robust version of relativism, encompassing different types of it: Relativism of Truth, Relativism of Being and Relativism of Knowledge. Among the other interpretations of the concept of Measure, Plato proposes the following substitution: “to be a Measure” means “to possess the criterion of knowledge”. This replacement allowed Plato to show the internal inconsistency of the TP. In the works of Sextus the concept of Measure in TP is unambiguously interpreted as the criterion of knowledge. For Plato the word criterion is still a philosophical neologism, but in the Hellenistic period it becomes an oft-used philosophical term.

Valery V. Petroff
RAS Institute of Philosophy (Moscow)
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 13.2 (2019) 705-715
Keywords: Plato, “Timaeus”, Proclus, heavenly plant, becoming-like-God, upright and inverted body, circular motion, linear motion, Ḥunayn ibn Isḥāq, al-Bīrūnī, Bhagavad Gita.
Abstract. The article treats Plato’s “geometric” cosmology and anthropology in “Timaeus” (in particular, the association of rational and irrational processes with circular and linear movements). Plato’s idea that straightened or bent posture of a living body depends on the properties of the soul that prevails in it is discussed. It is indicated that Plato associates human straightness with cultivation of circular motion and becoming like God, while the entry of the soul into the body is likened to turning upside down, in which condition the notions of right and left, true and false are inverted. Plato’s tendency to schematization and geometrization of reality in cosmological and anthropological explanations, as well as the peculiarity to represent living bodies as hollow volumes of space through which streams of elements flow are indicated. Plato’s representation of man as “the heavenly plant” turned upside down in relation to terrestrial plants is examined. Fragments of subsequent authors using this comparison are under consideration (parallels from the Arab and Indian traditions are given).

Oleg Donskikh
Novosibirsk State University
Novosibirsk State University of Economics and Management
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 13.2 (2019) 716-732
Keywords: poetic genres, philosophy, logos, physis, philology, grammar, scientists-poets.
Abstract. The article analyzes the situation of the formation of organized philosophical and scientific discourse in the pre-Socratic time, as well as in Alexandria and in the Arab Caliphate. It is shown that in all three cases it is, firstly, poetry that raised the verbal culture to such a level that the possibilities of using language expanded drastically and extreme generalizations became possible. Secondly, poetry performed a reflection upon mythology and formulated the problems that became the starting point of philosophical and scientific research. Poetry also inspired philosophers and scholars to use poetic forms to Express their ideas and improve their language.


Eugene Afonasin
Institute of philosophy and law SB RAS (Novosibirsk)
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 13.2 (2019) 733-739
Keywords: ancient philosophy of nature, corpuscles, unjointed masses, pores, void.
Abstract. Heraclides of Pontus (c. 388–310 BCE), a Platonic philosopher, worked in various literary genres. He discussed such typical Platonic topics as the transmigration of the soul, composed philosophical lives, dialogues or treaties about politics, literature, history, geography, etc., and wrote a series of works on astronomy and the philosophy of nature. Nothing is preserved. The present publication contains a collection of scant doxographic testimonies about Heraclides’ lost physical writings. The evidences are translated and numbered according to a new edition by Schütrumpf et al. 2008.

Eugene Afonasin
Tomsk State University; Institute of philosophy and law SB RAS (Novosibirsk)
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 13.2 (2019) 740-754
Keywords: ancient cosmology, terrestrial rotation, Venus.
Abstract. Heraclides of Pontus (c. 388–310 BCE), a Platonic philosopher, worked in various literary genres and wrote on such topics as psychology, politics, literature, history, geography, astronomy and the philosophy of nature. Nothing is preserved. The present publication contains a collection of the testimonies about Heraclides’ astronomical writings. He thought of an infinite universe, in fact believing that every star is a kosmos, located in the infinite either. He famously advanced the theory of terrestrial rotation, hypothesizing that the apparent diurnal rotation of the heavens is better explained by the rotation of the Earth, and in this context correctly observed that, unlike other planets, Venus as morning and evening star has the maximum elongation from the Sun’s position (that is to say is never located far from the Sun). The evidences are translated and numbered according to a new edition by Schütrumpf et al. 2008.

Anna Afonasina
Novosibirsk State University
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 13.2 (2019) 755-763
Keywords: Pre-Socratic, ancient cosmogony, doxography.
Abstract. A commented translation into Russian of Empedocles’ fragment B17 with the addition of several new lines available in the Strasbourg papyrus (on the basis of the so called Ensemble c). This badly fragmented piece of evidence is translated into Russian for the first time.

Andrey Schetnikov
“New School” LLC (Novosibirsk, Russia)
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 13.2 (2019) 764-770
Keywords: accounting, gnomon, the movement of the celestial bodies.
Abstract. An annotated translation of The Problems, Book 15. This short text from the Corpus Aristotelicum, important for the history of mathematics, is translated into Russian for the first time.

Andrey Schetnikov
“New School” LLC (Novosibirsk, Russia)
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 13.2 (2019) 771-822
Keywords: mathematics, geometry, vision, light, deductive reasoning.
Abstract. An annotated translation of Euclid’s Optics. The earliest systematic treatise by the famous Ancient Greek mathematician, which deals with the geometry of vision, is translated into Russian for the first time.


Lilian Karali
The University of Athens
Anna Afonasina and Eugene Afonasin
Novosibirsk State University
Language: English
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 13.2 (2019) 823-840
Keywords: Cultural change, approaches to human past, scientific method.
Abstract. In this lecture, one can find an abbreviated historical trajectory of the appearance and development of archaeology as a science. The aim is to demonstrate the perceptions and biases, which have influenced and still influence the archaeological theory and practice in negative or positive ways. The lecture was prepared for the participants of the program on “Classics and Philosophy” of Novosibirsk State University (October 2018).

ΣΧΟΛΗ, Vol. 13, Issue 2, complete text

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