Ancient Philosophy
and the Classical Tradition

A Journal of the Centre for Ancient Philosophy
and the Classical Tradition

ISSN 1995-4328 (Print) ISSN 1995-4336 (Online)


Marina Marren
United Arab Emirates University
Language: English
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 17.2 (2023) 550-565
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2023-17-2-550-565
Keywords: Anger, egotistical self-love, psychology, solipsism, shame.
Abstract. In this paper, I show how Achilles’ faults work as a lens through which we more readily see the problematic nature of ideals that cast war – and especially an aggressive war of conquest – in a poeticized and desirable light. I argue that in Homer’s Iliad, idealized images of war, which promise super-human glory, in the end, serve to undo and waste human life. I do not mean to say that in this archetypal war epic we find an outright critique of war. However, I argue that the Iliad holds its poeticized images of war in tension with the gruesome, life-negating violence to which these idealized representations give way.

Andrei Seregin
Institute of Philosophy RAS (Moscow)
Language: English
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 17.2 (2023) 566-581
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2023-17-2-566-581
Keywords: ancient ethics, deontology, duty, kathekon, stoicism.
Abstract. In this paper, I argue against Jack Visnjic’s claim (in his recent book “The Invention of Duty”) that the Stoic term καθῆκον conveys the idea of moral duty. First, I examine Visnjic’s explicit argumentation and find it inconclusive. Then, I provide additional objections based on the evidence which Visnjic, in my opinion, either underestimates or completely disregards. Basically, I believe that at least the early Stoics regarded καθήκοντα as morally neutral activities that can become both morally right and wrong depending on the agent’s motivation.

Tonguç Seferoğlu
Ardahan University (Turkey)
Language: English
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 17.2 (2023) 582-604
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2023-17-2-582-604
Keywords: reliabilism, Phaedo, Socrates’ autobiography, deuteros plous.
Abstract. This paper aims to offer a novel interpretation of Socrates’ autobiography in the Phaedo 96-102 by using reliabilist epistemology as a heuristic guide to spell out the complex dynamics of the intellectual development of Socrates of the Phaedo. Surprisingly, scholars have mostly focused on the outcomes of Socrates’s scientific investigations, but they neglected the dynamics of the discovery process. The reason why Socrates rejected many earlier scientific ideas and the way in which he discovered new theories as much significant and noteworthy as those theories. I argue that Socrates’ discovery and implementation of new methods of inquiry meet the epistemic standards of reliabilism that emphasize the reliability of processes involved in belief-formation. I show that Socrates criticized the physicists’ materialistic-mechanistic approach to explain coming-to-be, perishing, and being because of its unreliability. The paper concludes that (a) the concept of reliability is used as a guide to theory choice in Socrates’ autobiography (b) the positive feature of Socrates’ second sailing is its reliability and (c) reliability is the motive behind Socrates’ choice of certain belief-forming processes, namely a priori reasoning, the method of hypothesis, and the theory of Forms, in the search of the cause of coming-to-be, perishing, and being.

Anthony Michael Pasqualoni
New Haven Zen Center, Connecticut (USA)
Language: English
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 17.2 (2023) 605-622
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2023-17-2-605-622
Keywords: soul, body, time, space, music, religion.
Abstract. In Book X of Plato’s Laws, the motions of the body are contrasted with the changes of the soul. The latter are categorically different from the former. The soul is oriented in time while the body is oriented in space. Despite their differences, soul and body work in unison. When the senses are informed by λόγος, order is perceived and enacted. The coordination of soul and body is most evident in music and dance. A choral dance is a composition in which body and soul and their analogues, space and time, are unified. A city is an analogous composition. The relation between body and soul parallels the relation between a city on the one hand, and its laws, beliefs, and customs on the other. For these reasons, the highest order of a city is its religious order. The religious life of a city integrates time and space as well as soul and body. Religion serves as a binding power that harmonizes the city and its people.

Emile Alexandrov
University of Notre Dame, Australia
Language: English
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 17.2 (2023) 623-655
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2023-17-2-623-655
Keywords: Plato, Aristotle, Plotinus, theory of forms, intellect, soul.
Abstract. This paper makes four arguments to challenge attributing to Plato a theory of Forms. I begin by closely studying Aristotle’s critique of the Forms to show that Aristotle was more focused on the epistemological implications of the Forms as opposed to their existence. Additionally, it remains unclear as to whether Aristotle was targeting Plato or the Platonists in his critiques. I then turn to the inconsistencies inherent in Plato’s discussion of the Forms. Essentially, this is incumbent upon Plato’s commitment to the belief that writing and language fail to capture the Forms holistically. As such, Plato’s variegated discussions of the Forms in the dialogues reflect his commitment to the mutability of the world concurrently with language. This carries over to the reception of Plato and Aristotle in Antiquity and beyond. I show that starting from Antiochus of Ascalon onwards, Plato and Aristotle were accepted to be representatives of a consistent philosophy. This historical ‘harmonization’ of Plato and Aristotle shows that opposition between both thinkers concerning the Forms was not a commonly held view. I then turn to Plotinus who syncretised Plato’s Forms with Aristotelian Intellect which was appropriated by al-Fārābī who rejected the idea that there had been any distinction in the first place. Al-Fārābī composed a treatise on the harmony of Plato and Aristotle, whereas Plotinus based his entire philosophical enterprise on the synthesis of Platonic-Aristotelian philosophy that proved historically influential. The resulting thesis of this paper is that any close historical study of Aristotle’s interpretation of Plato’s Forms would show that one cannot attribute to Plato a theory of Forms without facing serious contradictions.

Anna Grünert
HSE University (Moscow)
Language: English
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 17.2 (2023) 656-671
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2023-17-2-656-671
Keywords: Psalter, Origen, Basil of Caesarea, Alexandrian exegesis, musical imagery, praxis and theoria.
Abstract. By comparing Origen’s and Basil’s homilies on the psalms, this article aims to demonstrate how both authors conceived of the literary and theological unity of the Psalter. Both exegetes incorporate Christian spiritual progress—as presented, according to them, in the divine music—into the dichotomy of praxis and theoria. To this end, they use a set of specific images. For instance, they both contrast the practical life of moral preparation, depicted as the “psalm” and a kind of instrumental music, with the contemplative life as the “canticle” and a kind of vocal music. In this way, drawing on the superiority of the body over the mind, Basil and Origen present the human body as a musical instrument and the virtuous life as harmonious song. I suggest that the recurring stress on this philosophical structure in the exegesis of the Psalter is explained by a desire to present this scriptural book as adapted for every Christian from the simplest to the more advanced ones, whatever spiritual preparation they have. The conception of the Psalter as an universal text embracing the content of the whole Bible developed by Basil, Athanasius and possibly Origen also leads to this approach. My research focuses primarily on Origen’s and Basil’s Homilies on the Psalms, but also establishes some relevant connections with other commentaries on the psalms.

Mikhail Vedeshkin
Institute of World History, Russian Academy of Sciences
School of Public Policy – RANEPA
Language: English
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 17.2 (2023) 672-702
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2023-17-2-672-702
Keywords: Late Antiquity, Late Roman Empire, Emperor Julian, Apostacy, Paganism, Conversion.
Abstract. The article delves into the issue of apostasy among the citizens of the Roman Empire during the brief reign of Julian. It provides an overview of the tactics employed by the emperor to convert his Christian subjects to paganism and evaluates their success across different strata of late Roman society, including the bureaucracy, military, Christian clergy, intellectual elite, and common people. It is concluded that Julian’s efforts at returning the Roman Empire to paganism were far more successful than it has traditionally been thought.

Oleg Donskikh
Novosibirsk State University
Novosibirsk State Technical University (Russia)
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 17.2 (2023) 703-735
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2023-17-2-703-735
Keywords: “Axial Time,” authorship, measure, order, justice, reflection, social position
Abstract. The article discusses the problem of movement to “axial time” (Karl Jaspers’ term) on the basis of two cultural traditions - Sumero-Akkadian and Egyptian. An attempt is made to find signs of the emergence of a new consciousness within the framework of collective-traditional consciousness. These signs are the emergence of authorship, the emergence of new genres, the peculiarity of which is a free change in the position of the speaker, the change in the perception of the world through the ideas of justice, the emergence of new narratives, existing in parallel with the traditional ones. It is shown that by the end of the second millennium BC both cultures possessed almost all the set of the named features. We consider the peculiarities of functioning of such mystically experienced images-concepts as “me” (norm, measure, etc) and “shimtu” (fate) in Mesopotamia and “maat” (order, justice, etc) in Egypt. In both cultures, the existence of personal gods, doubles, and personified souls creates the possibility of a regularly practiced reflection on one’s life. The notion of authorship of certain texts shows that, along with folklore, certain narratives are formed that are transmitted along with authoritative names. Nevertheless, the possibility of transition to individual consciousness proper was blocked by two crucial features of these cultures - the consciousness of absolute dependence on the gods, who could, if they wished, but were not obliged to reveal to man his destiny, and the attachment of each individual to his social position, where status plays a leading role in determining man's destiny than his own efforts.

Svetlana Demina
Vladimir State University named after Alexander and Nikolay Stoletovs
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 17.2 (2023) 736-747
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2023-17-2-736-747
Keywords: Ancient Rome, Cicero, Seneca, Stoicism, passions, emotions, vices.
Abstract. This article investigates Cicero’s and Seneca’s thoughts about passions and vices (their definitions, origins of emotions and vices, correlation of these concepts, and their correlation with a concept “illness”). Though the Stoics greatly influenced Cicero, and Seneca was a staunch adherent of Stoicism, their thoughts about passions and vices have more distinctions than similarities. The positions of these philosophers on the problems of the variability of vices, their origins and the relationship with the passions, the correlation of the terms “vitia” and “morbi”/”animi morbi” are contrary.

Gennady Drach
Ruslan Frantsuzov
Southern Federal University
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 17.2 (2023) 748-759
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2023-17-2-748-759
Keywords: Aristotle, Divine, Jaeger, myth, rationality, theology
Abstract. This article examines W. Jaeger’s work The theology of the early Greek philosophers: The Gifford Lectures, 1936. We believe that in addition to an extensive introductory article by V. V. Prokopenko, several points should be clarified. The first point is to reveal the ideological context within which this work was created and which it belonged to. The second point is to understand how W. Jaeger views the early Greek philosophers and what picture of early ancient intellectualism he paints. The disclosure of these two moments in unity lets us both to take a fresh look at the early ancient tradition of philosophizing and, to some extent, extrapolate this view by shifting the emphasis from the myth and logos plane to the area where mythopoetics (mythical theology) turns into theopoetics (philosophical theology).

Mikhail V. Egorochkin
Institute of Philosophy, Russian Academy of Sciences (Moscow)
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 17.2 (2023) 760-781
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2023-17-2-760-781
Keywords: Heraclides Lembus, ancient scholarship, epitome, Greek nicknames.
Abstract. The Hellenistic statesman, scholar and historian Heraclides Lembus is a highly ambiguous and enigmatic figure. One of the most intriguing things is his nickname Λέμβος. According to Diogenes Laertius, it was given to him for his work Λεμβευτικὸς λόγος (D.L. V, 94). However, the meaning of Heraclides’ nickname is difficult to understand, since Diogenes’ testimony is the only one that mentions this work, and the word λεμβευτικός itself is a hapax. The article carefully examines all available evidence about the life and writings of Heraclides Lembus, using all relevant materials and parallels. As a result, the author comes to the conclusion that the title Λεμβευτικὸς λόγος did not have a figurative meaning, as has often been thought. Instead, the work in question was most likely dedicated to the ordinary λέμβος-sailing. As for Heraclides’ nickname, it was not so much due to the writing of epitomes, as some scholars still believe, but to Heraclides’ interest in secondary literature. Heraclides Lembus was probably the first to epitomize a secondhand rather than primary sources – a fact reflected in his remarkable nickname.

Vitaly Ivanov
Saint Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation
Institute of philosophy RAS (Moscow)
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 17.2 (2023) 782-821
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2023-17-2-782-821
Keywords: necessary and eternal truth, Late Scholasticism, Jesuit metaphysics, verificativum-dispute, Gaspar de Ribadeneira, Izquierdo, Antonio Bernaldo de Quirós.
Abstract. The article is a study of the metaphysical dispute about the reality of necessary and eternal truths that took place among the leading Spanish Jesuits during the heyday of the scholastic tradition of the Society of Jesus in the middle of the 17th century. The traditional scholastic problem of “eternal truths” concerning essences of creatures and their possible existence, was radically reformulated thanks to the theological “innovations” of A. Pérez, who argued that the only verificativum (or foundation of reality) of any necessary truths is the very essence of God. This caused a furious polemical reaction on the part of S. Izquierdo, who proposed his own solution to this problem within the framework of his own original ontology of “status rerum” (especially the quidditative status) from the position of superrealism. The followers of Pérez, in turn, persistently opposed the "extremes" of Izquierdo's position. First, we briefly explicate the concept of "necessary and eternal truth" in Peripatetic tradition and give a historical overview of the time and place of this dispute, pointing to the main works in which the metaphysicians and theologians of the Society who participated in it formulated their positions. Secondly, we explicate the Pérezian thesis about God as the foundation of the necessity and reality of eternal truths on the example of an early treatise on the "possibility of creatures" by Gaspar de Ribadeneira (1653). Thirdly, we detail and analyze Izquierdo's criticism of this position in Disputation 10 of his Pharus scientiarum (1659). Fourthly, we present Izquierdo's own doctrine of the “quidditative status of things” or absolute necessary objective truths, and also explain his understanding of the necessity and eternity of such truths. In addition, we analyze how exactly he solves the key problem for his ontology – the problem of distinction and separability of the quidditative and existential status of a thing. Finally, we analyze the criticism of Izquierdo's position in the metaphysics of Antonio Bernaldo de Quirós (1666), pointing out the specifics of his argumentation and its theological and philosophical motives.

Igor Tantlevskij
St. Petersburg State University (Russia)
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 17.2 (2023) 822-841
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2023-17-2-822-841
Keywords: theology, gnoseology, mysticism, Qumran community, creationism, predestination, dualism, eschatology, soteriology.
Abstract. The article attempts to identify the specifics of the ways in which the Qumran authors “know” God, based on an analysis of a number of their key works. The Qumranites’ acquisition of “theological” Knowledge was mainly of direct intuitive “spiritual” comprehension, including elements of “noethics”. This cognitive phenomenon has sometimes been described directly as insight (cf., e. g., 1QHa 12:5-6, 27-29; 15:24-25). On the other hand, the Qumran teaching that God “formed understanding (bynh) for all who seek knowledge (d‘t)” and that “all reason (śkl) is from eternity” (4Q299, fr. 8, 7–8) suggests that human mind is initially a partaker of the eternal Mind of God. As one consequence of this, one has the potential gift of directly accessing the elements of Knowledge contained within the Divine Mind (śkl, bynh). There was also a mystical-“gnostic” way of knowing. Thus, the Qumranites probably practised some kind of mystical heavenly “voyages” in a kind of ecstatic state — in fact, probably implying mystical “death” and subsequent “rebirth”, involving the acquisition of heavenly Knowledge. The author has also tried to reconstruct elements of the Qumranite theological system and identify some features of the Qumran creationist doctrine and the closely related doctrine of predestination; views of history, eschatology and the creation of a new world; dualistic concepts in correlation with soteriology; the Qumran theology of Light and Darkness in ethical, gnoseological and soteriological aspects.

Irina Protopopova
Russian State University for the Humanities (Moscow)
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 17.2 (2023) 842-850
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2023-17-2-842-850
Keywords: Plato’s Theaetetus, translation, T.V. Vasilyeva, context, Sophists, subject of sensation.
Abstract. The purpose of this short note is to show by concrete examples how in some Russian (among others) translations of Plato’s Theaetetus the meaning changes to its exact opposite, which, of course, not only significantly complicates the understanding of the text for the reader inexperienced in ancient Greek, but sometimes brings him to an unsolvable logical impasse. The article analyzes two examples from T.V. Vasilyeva’s translation in comparison with some other translations and focusing on the corresponding contexts of the dialogue: Th. 160e7–8 and 164c7–d2. It is important that these are not some run-of-the-mill passages, but the key points for Plato to build the logic of Sophists: in the first case, he shows the necessary absence of the subject of sensation in the concept of universal movement; in the second, the role of the “agreement on words” in the eristic strategy of Sophists. In both cases, Vasilyeva’s translation, unfortunately, can only confuse the reader and make him doubt the logic and coherence of the Platonic text. From the point of view of the history of Plato’s translations, it would be interesting to consider possible sources of error in the first example (Th. 160e7–8) from multilingual translators of different epochs. From the practical point of view, the analysis of Vasilyeva’s translation of the Theaetetus, included in the “canonical” Russian-language edition of Plato, shows one thing: a new translation of the Theaetetus into Russian is earnestly needed.

Vladimir Brovkin
Institute of Philosophy and Law SB RAS (Novosibirsk, Russia)
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 17.2 (2023) 851-865
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2023-17-2-851-865
Keywords: Epicurus, Art of Life, Spiritual Practices, Philosophical Therapy, A Guide to Life
Abstract. The article deals with the question of the place the philosophy of Epicurus in modern intellectual culture. It is established that epicureanism today has gone far beyond academic research. The philosophy of Epicurus claims to be the art of life. The teaching of Epicurus acts as a philosophical therapy, with the help of which negative emotions are overcome. Epicurean spiritual practices are used to achieve serenity. Some researchers and writers see epicureanism as a worldview and a set of values that can help solve such modern global problems as environmental pollution, uncontrolled consumption growth and socio-political instability.

Roman Svetlov
Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University (Kaliningrad)
Dmitry Shmonin 
St. Petersburg University (Russia)
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 17.2 (2023) 866-874
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2023-17-2-866-874
Keywords: Porphyry of Tyre, Chaldean oracles, Judaism, theurgy, neoplatonism.
Abstract: The article seeks to explain the issue of why Porphyry of Tire, the first thinker introducing the discourses of the «Chaldean oracles» into Platonism, did not integrate Chaldaism and Judaism in his ideas on the nature of barbarian "theologies". For example, Julian the Apostate had accomplished such integration in his “political theology”. In the authors' opinion the reason for Porphyry's caution was his assessment of theurgy and its role in the genuine piety. The well-known discussion on the efficacy of theurgy in Porphyry's «Letter to Anebon» and «On the Egyptian Mysteries» of Iamblichus shows us two different modes of understanding of the Chaldean wisdom. Meantime, focusing on Iamblichus' approaches, Julian achieved this integration.

Danil Popov
St. Petersburg State University
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 17.2 (2023) 875-887
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2023-17-2-875-887
Keywords: Faith and Reason, philosophy journals, Stoic tradition, Stoic legacy, Stoicism, Stoic narrative
Abstract: The scope of the study is the Stoics’ and Stoic philosophy’s images in the influential theological-philosophical journal "Faith and Reason". Its materials constituted a significant part of the philosophical articles on the Stoics in the late 19th-early 20th century Russia. Due to confessional bias and peculiarities of the intellectual debates of that time, the journal's authors did not limit themselves to historical-philosophical or theological studies of Stoic philosophy. "Faith and Reason" attempted to unfold a multidimensional critical narrative of desperate Stoic mood, the religious wickedness of the Stoics, and the cold spirit of their morals, contrasting the personal wisdom of the Roman Stoics with their school affiliation. It is suggested that the Stoic narrative offered in the journal was intended to exert an edifying influence on its audience, to demonstrate the perverse nature of Stoic teachings as well as their incompatibility with the truth of Christianity.

Aleksey Bogomolov
Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University (Kaliningrad)
Minin Nizhny Novgorod State Pedagogical University (Minin University)
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 17.2 (2023) 888-898
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2023-17-2-888-898
Keywords: apophatics, negativity, history of ancient philosophy, Hesiod, proto-apophatics, non-being
Abstract. The purpose of this article is a historical and philosophical reconstruction of the problem of negativity in "Theogony". It is shown that negativity is not limited only to the doctrine of Chaos, since in the text of Hesiod there are other mythological images that are endowed with their apophatic characteristics. These include Erebus, Night, Tartarus, as well as "limits and beginnings". At the same time, Chaos certainly has a special status. Chaos generates other negative images – Night, Erebus. Consequently, the three mythological images are in genus-species relations, which means they are different types of negativity from each other. The "beginnings and limits", which also have their apophatic characteristics, are that which contains Chaos in itself. Consequently, Hesiod's myth contains not only an apophatic problematic, but there is an implicit difference in the understanding of negativity.

Valery V. Petroff
RAS Institute of Philosophy (Moscow)
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 17.2 (2023) 899-938
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2023-17-2-899-938
Keywords: Homer, Sappho, Tithonus, Alexei Parshchikov, papyri, Callimachus, Vikenty Veresaev
Abstract. The article discusses the philosophical implications of the Greek myth of Eos and Tithonus. In relation to different versions of this myth, the opinions of various authors regarding the problem of finding and maintaining individual identity in the conditions of bodily metamorphoses, as well as the problems of aging (gradual loss of the body and memory) are considered. The question is raised about the body of the mythological hero and the means of transmitting the fabula, whether it is transmission in the oral tradition through speech-logos or transmission through the text fixed on a material carrier (which can be lost, corrupted, restored ). The question of the interrelation of the myth of Eos and Tithonus with the details of the biography of the authors who refer to it is being studied. In this respect, the following are studied: the Homeric hymn to Aphrodite, Sappho’s “Tithonus poem” (including the history of its finding and reconstruction), as well as the poem “Tithonus the Cicada” by Alexei Parshchikov, which puts the ancient story into the modern context of reasoning about the “digital body”, transhumanism and cloning.

Yaroslav Slinin
St. Petersburg State University
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 17.2 (2023) 939-957
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2023-17-2-939-957
Keywords: Aristotle, knowledge, reason, middle term, syllogism, proof, nous, formal cause, definition.
Abstract. The article deals with Aristotle's doctrine of syllogism as an elementary form of proof. According to Aristotle, of all fourteen valid syllogism forms, the first form of the first figure is best suited for this task, since its conclusion is "general and affirmative." But Aristotle also considers a special case of this syllogism form, when both terms of the first premise are equal, and its converse goes without restriction. Aristotle shows that in this case, on purely logical grounds, it is impossible to distinguish middle term from major, since they are interchangeable. Therefore, such syllogisms turn out to be ambiguous and do not prove anything. What is to be done? Aristotle turns to epistemological grounds to make the definition converse impossible and thus to get the ability to state it as the major syllogism premise. He claims that knowledge of the formal cause of a thing leads to the knowledge of a thing itself, but not vice versa. A determinable requires clarification with the help of the determinant, and not on the contrary. Therefore, the formal cause of a thing by Aristotle is always the cause, and not the thing itself, or the action. Therefore, if the definition serves as a major premise of the syllogism, then the formal cause of a thing always turns out to be a middle term, while for the major premise stands the thing itself. Thus, the interchangeability of terms is disestablished, since, as Aristotle says, the cause has the first place in comparison with its effect. As a result, a syllogism becomes complete, unambiguous, and quite “usable”.

Valerij Goušchin
National Research University “Higher School of Economics”
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 17.2 (2023) 958-979
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2023-17-2-958-979
Keywords: social memory and oblivion, battle at Marathon, trophies, war-dead memorials, orators of the IV century BC.
The battle at Marathon was a significant event in the history of Athens. It is considered here as a phenomenon of social memory, as an event, whose memory was passed on to subsequent generations. Social memory is understood as the preservation and transmission of significant information. This was due to the construction of the trophies and war-dead memorials both at the site of the battle (places of memory) and beyond. At the same time, the preservation of the memory of the Marathon Battle followed by obvious distortions and exclusion of some significant elements from its description. That is what often called "oblivion" or forgetting. It is suggested here that in the process of storing and transmitting information, a certain system of images and representations (pattern) was developed, which determines its perception. The events that do not fit into this system (pattern) were not taken into account.

Alina Zaykova
Institute of Philosophy and Law SB RAS (Novosibirsk, Russia)
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 17.2 (2023) 980-992
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2023-17-2-980-992
Keywords: Aristotle, time, time perception, perception, temporal consciousness, consciousness, waterfall illusion, motion aftereffect.
Abstract. In his work De Insomniis, Aristotle pointed out that after observing motion, objects at rest appeared to move. In modern literature, this effect, called the "waterfall illusion" or "the motion aftereffect", is widely researched and explained both scientifically and philosophically. Most researchers consider in the first place why this happens and what it means. This allows us to put forward new hypotheses and argue in favor of existing theories, in particular, thanks to the waterfall illusion, a hypothesis about multi-threaded data processing by neurons was proposed and some features of the work of adaptive perception mechanisms were demonstrated. At the same time, the implicit and unreasoned choice of a specific method of explanation to assert the advantages of a certain model while neglecting other empirical experience may be a methodological error, which can be seen in the example of S. Prosser's concept of dynamic frames.

Daniil Dorofeev
Saint Petersburg Mining University
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 17.2 (2023) 993-1048
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2023-17-2-993-1048
Keywords: iconography of ancient philosophers, sibyls and the Tree of Jesse in the Middle Ages, Christian temples and churches, visual and plastic images of the "Hellenic sages", ancient prophets of Christ, philosophy and aesthetics.
Abstract. The article is devoted to the study of the visual-plastic iconography of ancient philosophers in medieval Christian churches in Western and Eastern Europe, the Middle East, Greece and Russia. For the first time in Russian and European scientific literature, the author gives such a complete and detailed overview of all Christian churches (including little-known ones) and temples that have visual-pictorial and sculptural-plastic images of “Hellenic sages”, which in the Middle Ages included not only ancient philosophers, but also poets, writers, historians and sibyls. Based on his many years of research, travel, study of many domestic and foreign sources on this topic, the author presents a large-scale and multicolored picture of the amazing Christian (primarily Orthodox) tradition of understanding the ancient sages as prophets of Christ and his teachings, drawing attention to many of its interesting features. This tradition finds expression both in texts and in the narthex, galleries, refectory, outer walls and even in the iconostasis of churches, visual images of the “Hellenic sages”, most often part of the iconography of the “Tree of Jesse”. Along the way, the problems of visual identification of such images, the features of their appearance, clothing, accompanying sayings, etc. are touched upon. Revealing in this way the potential of the visual dialogue between antiquity and Christianity in the Middle Ages, the author strives to present in a new light the reception of ancient Greek philosophers, which is valuable for modern thought both in the aesthetic and historical-philosophical context.

Sergei Belozerov
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 17.2 (2023) 1049-1071
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2023-17-2-1049-1071
Keywords: Demetrius Phalereus, Euhemerus, Palephatos, Dionysius Scytobrachion, Iambulus, Leon of Pella.
Abstract. The article presents a new original view on the circumstances and features of the origin of euhemerism in all its genre diversity - from mythographic utopias, chorographies and mirabilia to pseudoperiples and paradoxography. An in-depth analysis of the sources that have come down to us gives grounds to assume with a fairly high degree of probability early Ptolemaic Alexandria as its main launch pad and epicenter and to link it with the activities of Demetrius Phalereus, the founder of the famous in antiquity Mouseion and the Library.

Eugene Afonasin
Novosibirsk State University (Russia)
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 17.2 (2023) 1072-1083
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2023-17-2-1072-1083
Keywords: orphic, myth, Plato, journey, reincarnation of the soul, afterlife retribution.
Abstract. The motif of the journey is characteristic of Orphicism. Orpheus' journey on the Argo and his descending to Hades, the travel of souls to the afterlife and their celestial journey before their subsequent incarnation. These ideas are vividly represented in the Orphic hymns, the Orphic golden tablets and, perhaps most vividly, in Plato's myths in Phaedo, Phaedrus, Gorgias and the State. In trhe paper I consider these myths in the context of ancient philosophical literature, the task of which is to provide a coherent interpretation of the very fluid and not entirely unambiguous pictures that the great Athenian philosopher paints in his imagination. First of all, it concerns such questions as the corporeality or incorporeality of souls, the circumstances of their judgment and the conditions of their subsequent incarnation, details of the topography of the “other earth” and, finally, the discussion about the classes of souls, which were developed in subsequent Platonism.

Pavel Butakov
Institute of Philosophy and Law SB RAS
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 17.2 (2023) 1084-1097
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2023-17-2-1084-1097
Keywords: faith, doubt, New Testament, dual-process theory.
Abstract. It is often claimed that there are passages in the New Testament where the word διακρίνω, contrary to its regular meaning (to discern, separate), has a special "NT meaning" of hesitation and doubt. Those passages describe diakrisis as the opposite of faith. I offer an argument against the "NT meaning" of diakrisis, which is based on the dual-process theory from cognitive psychology. First, I distinguish the two types of faith in the New Testament—an involuntary Type 1 and a voluntary Type 2. I also suggest that all cases of propositional or quantitative faith belong to Type 2. I argue that in those passages where diakrisis opposes faith, the faith is propositional and quantitative, therefore it is of Type 2. Then I argue that in those passages faith and diakrisis belong to the same Type, i.e. Type 2. Since doubt is an involuntary Type 1 process, and diakrisis is a voluntary Type 2 process, diakrisis should not be translated as "doubt," and the claim of the special "NT meaning" of διακρίνω is incorrect.

Anna Afonasina
Novosibirsk State University (Russia)
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 17.2 (2023) 1098-1108
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2023-17-2-1098-1108
Keywords: Empedocles, vision, Aphrodite, Kora.
Abstract. It is quite fair to consider Empedocles as one of the first naturalists. Many of his fragments describe the parts of animals, their composition, functions and origin. Nature as a whole appears to us as a well-oiled mechanism in which different forces operate. As an illustration of this thought, the article considers the fragment B 84 DK. In it Empedocles, according to Aristotle, describes vision. In his characteristic style Empedocles does so by means of metaphor. In the first part of the fragment, he talks about the need to carry a lamp if one is travelling in the dark. But the lamp also needs to be protected from the wind, for which purpose some kind of lantern is attached to it, which prevents the wind from blowing. What this device is remains a mystery. Based on philological analysis, the article tries to imagine how this device might have looked like. The second part of the fragment is a mirror image of the first, it echoes it, but in different words. Here the metaphors of primordial fire, round-eyed Kora, and miraculous funnels attract special attention. Analysis of the fragment shows that the rich religious life of the time could have had a great influence on the formation of these metaphors. The fragment is given in Marwan Rashed's reconstruction.


Alexei Garadja
Russian State University for the Humanities (Moscow)
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 17.2 (2023) 1109-1121
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2023-17-2-1109-1121
Keywords: Plato’s Timaeus, Calcidius’ Commentary, demonology.
Abstract. The publication presents a commented Russian translation of chapters 120 and 127–136 from Calcidius’ Commentarius on Plato’s Timaeus dealing with demonology, a most important part of philosophical knowledge in the eyes of Neoplatonic thinkers. We know virtually nothing about Calcidius, neither the dates of his lifespan, nor the place where he lived and worked. Even his name has become debatable recently: Chalcidius or Calcidius. Meanwhile, his principal (and only) work, a Latin translation of Plato’s Timaeus accompanied by a detailed commentary, has become the most important link in the transmission of Plato’s legacy from Antiquity to the medieval Latin West. Up to the twelfth-century turning point and the rise of the School of Chartres, the reception of Plato in the West was channeled almost exclusively through Calcidius’s work. His translation of the Timaeus, which occupies pages 17a–92c in the Corpus Platonicum, carries on only up to page 57c; another translation of the Timaeus, which has been accessible in the Latin West, belonged to Cicero, and was even more abridged (pages 27d–47b with omissions); nevertheless, it was Cicero’s translation that St. Augustine (354–430) used, unaware, it would seem, of Calcidius’ work. The most probable dating of our author seems to be the 4th – the beginning of the 5th century AD. Calcidius reveals himself as an author in his own right, who had not only accomplished the serious job of translating philosophical terminology from Greek into Latin, but also contributed to the development of the genre of commentary, and so deserves to be studied not only as a transmitter of knowledge from Antiquity to the Middle Ages. The Russian translation is based on the standard Jan Hendrik Waszink’s edition (1975), taking into account more recent editions by C. Moreschini (2003), B. Bakhouche (2011), and J. Magee (2016), which are accompanied by translations into modern European languages; the chronological density of these publications testifies to the undoubtable surge of interest in Calcidius’ work in the last few decades.


Aleksandr A. Sinitsyn
The Russian Christian Academy for the Humanities (Saint Petersburg, Russia)
Igor E. Surikov
Institute of World History Russian Academy of Sciences (Moscow, Russia)
Language: English
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 17.2 (2023) 1122-1150
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2023-17-2-1122-1150
Keywords: Ancient history, encyclopedia, Herodotus, historiography, historian, writer, subjects, Greeks, barbarians, ethnonym, toponym, hydronym, Reception, cinema, myth.
Abstract. In 2021 the Wiley Blackwell Publishing turned out a huge (three monumental volumes, over 1,700 pages) encyclopedia devoted to the historian Herodotus and everything related to him: Ch. Baron (ed.) The Herodotus Encyclopedia. Vol. 1 (A–D). Vol. 2 (E–O). Vol. 3 (P–Z). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Blackwell, 2021. LII+XXXII+XXXII, 1653 p. ISBN 9781118689646 (hardback) | ISBN 9781119113539 (adobe pdf). This grand edition was compiled to commemorate the 2,500th birthday of the “Father of History”. The work brought together over 180 scholars from dozens of academic centers from 18 counties. The head of the writing team, Christopher Baron, strove to make “The Herodotus Encyclopedia” represent the entire contemporary state of the Herodotus studies. The book encompasses a broad range of subjects: every anthroponym, ethnonym, toponym, hydronym mentioned in the work of the Father of History is dealt with in a separate entry. Of special interest are conceptual, controversial entries related to various theoretical and methodological aspects of Herodotus’ work. The authors of the review decided against focusing on purely informational entries (which constitute the bulk, similar to every encyclopedia), but concentrated on the conceptual ones, they also made a number of critical remarks, since even the best works cannot be devoid of flaws. The work compiled to commemorate the grand jubilee of the “Father of History” is undoubtedly comprehensive and useful, and in spite of some minor flaws of the edition, this project of vast dimensions cannot help but impress.

Mikhail A. Vedeshkin
Institute of World History, Russian Academy of Sciences
School of Public Policy – RANEPA
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 17.2 (2023) 1151-1160
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2023-17-2-1151-1160
Keywords: Late Antiquity, Late Roman Empire, Late Antique epistolography, Sinesius of Cyrene.
Abstract. A review of Miroshnichenko, E.I. (2021) Sinesij Kirenskij: lichnost' i jetiket v pozdneantichnoj jepistolografii [Synesius of Cyrene: Personality and Etiquette in Late Antique Epistolography]. St. Petersburg: Nestor-Istoria. 311 p.

Ekaterina Smirnova
Petrozavodsk State University (Russia)
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 17.2 (2023) 1161-1195
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2023-17-2-1161-1195
Keywords: Antiquity, Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome, Early Christianity, Classical Philology, Studies in Antiquity, J. Senkovsky.
Abstract. The article attempts to identify the characteristics of classical antiquity representation in The Library for Reading journal in the 1830s, when it was the most popular Russian periodical, with its editor Josef Senkovsky being one of the famous writers and eminent scholars. The study draws on 8 literary publications and 24 research papers related to Greco-Roman antiquity. The analysis of literary works accepted for publication by Senkovsky shows that they were to lead the reader to reflect on three subjects: the features of intellectual pastime in classical antiquity and modernity; the transient nature of power of both an ambitious individual and the great empire; and the similarities, differences, and accomplishments of antiquity and modern times. The works of belles-lettres reflected the ambiguous perception of classical antiquity in the 1830s: on the one hand, viewing its heritage as a “golden standard”, and on the other – picturing it as a bygone and distant epoch through the motifs of catastrophe and decrepitude. The analyzed research publications on antiquity are distinguished by a striking variety of topics and the editor’ desire to make the papers clear and fascinating for readers by presenting classical antiquity not as a boring collection of dead forms, but as full of life and struggle. Moreover, the research articles shaped the image of the classical studies as a dynamic and developing scholarly discipline filled with discoveries, acute disputes, and unsolved riddles. All scholarly publications on Greco-Roman antiquity wrapped thoughtful and profound reflections targeting the highly educated reading elite in a popular narrative addressed to the general audience. The key questions they raised were the significance of classical texts as reliable sources for studying ancient history and understanding ancient Greek and Roman worldviews, as well as the relationships between antiquity and the Ancient East or antiquity and modernity.

ΣΧΟΛΗ, Vol. 17, Issue 2, complete text

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