Ancient Philosophy
and the Classical Tradition

A Journal of the Centre for Ancient Philosophy
and the Classical Tradition

ISSN 1995-4328 (Print) ISSN 1995-4336 (Online)


Kenneth Knies
Sacred Heart University (USA)
Language: English
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 17.1 (2023) 7-28
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2023-17-1-7-28
Keywords: Techne, Work, Efficiency, Taylorism, Management.
Abstract. I discover resources in Plato’s Charmides for a critique of management as a form of knowledge. After interpreting in a practical register Critias’ idea of a science that would comprehend all sciences without understanding any of their objects (166c – 175a), I argue that the paradoxes with which Socrates confronts this idea can be overcome. With reference to F.W. Taylor’s Principles of Scientific Management, I show how this overcoming depends upon transforming productive activity so that it no longer requires the knowledge of products that characterizes techne. As Socrates foresaw, a science that has all ways of working as its object must have somehow expropriated work of its own proper objects.

Miguel López-Astorga
Institute of Humanistic Studies, University of Talca (Chile)
Language: English
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 17.1 (2023) 29-44
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2023-17-1-29-44
Keywords: general knowledge, information processing, mental models, modulation, Pythagoreanism.
Abstract. This paper tries to show that the theory of mental models describes deep mental processes that have to be assumed even by frameworks contrary to it. It has been argued that many explanations on certain cognitive activities different from that provided by the theory of mental models cannot ignore theses of this last approach. Those theses are related to the way the human mind interprets linguistic information and makes inferences. The main goal here is to give further evidence in this way by means of an analysis of a part of a fragment, authored by Diogenes Laërtius, about the Pythagorean ban against eating broad beans. The idea is to make it even more evident that any framework trying to account for how that part of the fragment can be understood by a reader needs to accept suppositions that characterize the theory of mental models.

Claudio Calabrese
Universidad Panamericana (México)
Ethel Junco
Universidad Panamericana (México)
Language: English
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 17.1 (2023) 45-62
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2023-17-1-45-62
Keywords: Odysseus, Self-inflicted wound, Poseidon, Helen, Mythical Temporality.
Abstract. In our work, we show that Helen's recollection of Odysseus' self-inflicted wound places us in an eternal present, emerging "from" and disappearing "in" the nature of the Homeric hexameter, et retour, to create and recreate semantic spaces that make possible the return of the hero and the heroic action, giving the temporal correlation an unexpected meaning through the past-future /future-past correspondence.

Christos Terezis
University of Patras (Greece)
Language: English
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 17.1 (2023) 63-69
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2023-17-1-63-69
Keywords: Proclus, Alcibiades I, political counsellor, justice, rhetoric.
Abstract. In this article, I investigate the relationship between rhetoric and justice as it is presented in Proclus’ commentary of Plato’s dialogue Alcibiades I. The study is divided into three parts. In the first one, which is entitled “The political counsellor”, I elaborate how this institutional person, utilizing the possibilities of rhetoric, aims to exercise prudence to all those who intent to complete personally and politically themselves in the context of justice. In the second part, which is entitled “The refutation of the superficial syllogisms”, I focus on what rhetoric can provide to man so as to be able to think in a rational way when it comes to the precise content of justice as a moral and political virtue. In the third part, which is entitled “The justice and injustice and their relationship with benefit”, I discuss how rhetoric needs to be utilized in order to have new modes of connection of justice with benefit, excluding any beneficial criterion. The main conclusion that I draw is that according to Proclus rhetoric is for a political counsellor a tool of justice, which has to be the final purpose of his mission.

Kazimierz Pawlowski
Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski University (Warsaw, Poland)
Language: English
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 17.1 (2023) 70-86
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2023-17-1-70-86
Keywords: Asclepius, Hermes Trismegistus, Hermetism, Hermetic Philosophy.
Abstract. The paper deals with the concept of Hermetic philosophy presented in Pseudo-Apuleius' dialogue Asclepius, sive dialogus Hermetis Trismegisti. The attempt is made to describe the special characteristic of this philosophy and its spiritual dimension. Hermetic philosophy is not about solving complicated theoretical problems. Hermetic philosophy only wants to inspire and arouse the natural spiritual sensibility of its adept and open his mind to receiving the divine Mind (God).

Eugene Afonasin
Novosibirsk State University (Russia)
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 17.1 (2023) 87-119
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2023-17-1-87-119
Keywords: Ancient mystery cults, Early Greek philosophy, the history of religion, cosmology, ritual, eschatology.
Abstract. The paper is concentrated on the Derveni papyrus. According to the cosmology of the papyrus Zeus recreated the world anew. The meaning of this self-contained process may indicate the poet's desire to reflect the cyclicity of time, manifested in the alternation of the one and the many. Besides, this model may be related to the famous Orphic idea of the cyclic life of the soul. It is also possible that we are facing the first example of the cosmological scheme, which we later find in Heraclides of Pontus, and I think that it is no accident that the doxographer (or Heraclides himself) attributes it to the Orphics, who “make each of the heavenly bodies into a cosmos” (Aetius 2.13.15). The eternally existent universe evolves thanks to the creative energy of sky (Uranus), which is concentrated in the sun. Zeus recreates this universe on earth, building a small cosmos in which we inhabit and all that we see. Developing this idea in the spirit of Giordano Bruno, we can assume that this or that deity, in the Orphic (and Pythagorean) view, recreates from the original material a unique cosmos on each of the celestial bodies, and the universe is populated by a variety of beings inhabiting all kinds of worlds.

Eugene Afonasin
Novosibirsk State University (Russia)
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 17.1 (2023) 120-137
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2023-17-1-120-137
Keywords: Ancient mystery cults, the history of religion, orphica, ritual, eschatology.
Abstract. The gold tablets of the Classical and Hellenistic periods from burials in Italy and Greece are published in Russian translation and accompanied by a commentary. The text is a supplement to the previous article.

Mikhail Kozhevnikov
Novosibirsk State University (Russia)
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 17.1 (2023) 138-151
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2023-17-1-138-151
Keywords: Ancient mystery cults, apocalyptic literature, katabasis, Sumerian literature, dying-and-rising deity, initiation rites, soteriology.
Abstract. The article deals with two literary works originating from two highly distinct traditions: ancient Sumerian and Greek. Despite their different origins, the two works in question, “The Descent of Inana to the Underworld” and Homeric Hymn “To Demeter”, share several key features, which thematically connect them to Greek Mystery cults: topics of death and possibility of salvation, mysteries of the underworld, which can be transcended by means of initiation rites, aetiological connection between the death and rebirth of a fertility deity and agricultural fertility of the land. Based on the assumption that these two sources can be identified as apocalypses and given the widespread correlation between formal literary complexity and philosophical (or theological) depth found in apocalyptic literature (especially in Judeo-Christian tradition), this paper seeks to establish the same correlation in Greco-Sumerian and, more precisely, Eleusinian milieu. However, the final analyses proves the opposite of the initial hypothesized conclusion.

Petr Shulga
Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Novosibirsk, Russia)
Daniil Shulga
Siberian Institute of Management – the branch of Russian Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (Novosibirsk, Russia)
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 17.1 (2023) 152-165
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2023-17-1-152-165
Keywords: domestication of the horse, chariots, harness, Mycenaean era, Bronze age.
Abstract. Reconstruction of the device of the earliest bridle of the period of domestication of the horse in IV-III millennium BCE in the territory of steppe and forest steppe Eurasia is still a special problem. We have only horn (bone) cheek-pieces in the steppes of the early stage, and in Greece, Anterior Asia, Egypt and the Caucasus – bronze cheek-pieces and bit, on which it is impossible to establish the arrangement of the bridle reliably. In our view, the appearance on the cheek-pieces of the frame for fastening the «sub-directional» belt is connected with the use of bit. Thanks to it, the cheek-pieces together with the bit were attracted down to the toothless part of the jaw. This device did not allow the horse to eat and bite the belt bit. It acted like the North American Indians' simple belt loop device, which covered the toothless portion of the horse’s mandible. Such an assignment could have characteristic frames on bronze discus cheek-pieces from Mycenae and Anterior Asia, or oblong side openings on horny shield cheek-pieces from steppe Eurasia.

Svetlana Martynova
Herzen State Pedagogical University (St Petersburg)
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 17.1 (2023) 166-176
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2023-17-1-166-176
Keywords: Body, Soul, Teleology, Efficient Cause, Hypothetical Necessity
Abstract. Aristotle was the first anсient philosopher who proved necessity of instrumental explanation of body, using the concept ὄργανον in a biological context. The purpose of the paper is to make clear the reasons and the limits of the analogy between parts of body and tools as artifacts. My research is focused on their common essence and status among efficient causes on the one hand and its different efficient and final causes on the other hand.

Oleg Nogovitsin
Sociological Institute of the Federal Center of Theoretical and Applied Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences (St. Petersburg)
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 17.1 (2023) 177-216
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2023-17-1-177-216
Keywords: John Philoponus, Severus of Antioch, Leontius of Byzantium, Christology, Triadology, nature, substance, hypostasis, person.
Abstract. The article considers the place of the famous argument of Severus of Antioch on the absurdity of confessing two common natures in Christ in the structure of the "Arbiter" by John Philoponus. In compliance with the general formula of this argument, the confession of two natures in Christ, taken as common natures of deity and humanity, necessarily entails agreeing that the incarnation of Christ signifies the incarnation of the whole Trinity in the whole humankind, namely, the incarnation of all the hypostases of the Trinity in each human being. John Philoponus supplements it with the distinction of common and particular natures: the common essence of deity, as represented by the aggregate of particular natures (Father, Son=Word, Saint Spirit), being incarnated in Christ, would lead to the incarnation of the mentioned particular natures in the common essence of humanity, i. e. in the aggregate of all whenever lived, living now and still not come into being people. In the article, a detailed analysis is given of the functional mode of Severus’ argument and of the concept of “particular nature” in the philosophical writings of John Philoponus, as well as that of the sense and the mechanism of transmission of this concept to the theological context of his substantiation of the Monophysite Triadology and Christology. On the grounds of scrutinizing these issues, the dependence is exposed of the procedures of substantiation of theological problems, applied in the “Arbiter”, on the methodology of school Neoplatonic philosophy.

Andrey Tikhonov
Southern Federal University, avtihonov@sfedu.ru
Ruslan Frantsuzov
Southern Federal University, SovietUnion789@yandex.ru
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 17.1 (2023) 217-225
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2023-17-1-217-225
Keywords: Plato, God, Divine, Demiurge, Paradigm, Creation, World.
Abstract. This article is devoted to the consideration of such an aspect of Plato's philosophy as theology. Starting with the "Platonic Theology" of Proclus Diadochus, this point of view and the system of interpretation of philosophical research character continued to develop and refine a number of categories and ideas developed by Plato - Demiurge, ideas of "mixing", ideas of "creation", categories of paradigm (within the dispute about universals), etc. However, if we recognize the equality of the ontological status of the Demiurge, the paradigm and the created world (to whom the blessed god was given life), we come across a number of problems that are expressed not only in the understanding of the "divine" itself, but also in relation to what, within the framework of the "theological" view of Plato, can be called deified or divine images (Demiurge, paradigm and the created world). In this paper, an attempt will be made to demonstrate these contradictions, and to make a number of comments.

Leonid Zhmud
Saint-Petersburg Branch of the Institute for the History of Science and Technology RAS (Russia)
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 17.1 (2023) 226-243
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2023-17-1-226-243
Keywords: Greek science, history of exact sciences, post-school education in antiquity, enkyklios paideia, Plato, Isocrates.
Abstract. Teaching of mathēmata in the framework of enkyklios paideia, the post-school education of a “free man”, was a new social practice that originated in the fourth century BC and greatly contributed to the growing public acceptance of science. Due to this educational practice that became common during the Hellenistic period many young men from wealthy families who took the course of enkyklios paideia, received instruction in the four mathēmata: geometry, arithmetic, astronomy, and harmonics. Although the widespread use of this model of education coincided with the sudden quantitative and qualitative decline of Greek science in the first century BC, a considerable number of educated people from the higher strata of society were becoming familiar, albeit in varying degrees, with scientific knowledge and methods. Thus, mathēmata were ingrained in society to an extent that enabled them to survive, albeit with serious losses, the transition from antiquity to the Middle Ages, when the volume and quality of scientific knowledge drastically declined, and their preservation became part of the social role of the clergyman.

Svetlana Mesyats
RAS Institute of Philosophy (Moscow, Russia)
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 17.1 (2023) 244-261
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2023-17-1-244-261
Keywords: Byzantine commentators, Michael of Ephesus, late antique commentary tradition, Aristotle, Aristotelian philosophy of nature, Parva Naturalia, theory of four causes, hypothetical necessity, definition of matter, material cause of sleep.
Abstract. The paper gives a general description of the surviving Byzantine commentaries on Aristotle’s small psychological treatises traditionally known as Parva naturalia and describes the most notable manuscripts and editions of commentaries compiled by Michael of Ephesus, George Pachymeres, Theodore Metochites, Sophonias and Gennady Scholarios. The paper clarifies relationships of these texts to each other, discusses possible reasons of the renewal of interest in biological and physiological aspects of Aristotle’s philosophy among Byzantine scholars of the 12th – 15th centuries, and explains why the late antique commentary tradition paid little attention to particular issues of Aristotle’s philosophy of nature. Distinctive features of Byzantine exegesis are established by examining how Byzantine commentators dealt with some controversial questions of Aristotle’s treatise On sleep and waking, in particular the question of why Aristotle, after promising to consider the formal, final, effective and material causes of sleep, explores only three of these causes and leaves the material one without attention. We demonstrate that Byzantine commentators were convinced of the existence of the material cause of sleep and identified the latter with the hot evaporation that necessarily arises from food in the process of digestion. However, the analysis of this interpretation shows that it was based on a misunderstanding of the basic concepts of Aristotelian philosophy, since Byzantine exegesis was aimed more at preserving Aristotle's texts than at better understanding the general order of his philosophy.

Valeria Danilova
Vladimir State University named after Alexander and Nikolay Stoletovs (Russia)
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 17.1 (2023) 262-271
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2023-17-1-262-271
Keywords: Second Sophistic, Dio Chrysostom, political orations, the image of the king, forms of government.
Abstract. The paper deals with Dio Chrysostom’s political orations to figure out his attitude to kingship, tyranny and others forms of government. The content analysis of the discourses reveals which virtues of the king are considered the most important. Constructing the image of the ideal king, Dio used such mythological and historical examples as Heracles and Alexander the Great. Dio tried to influence the emperor Trajan to make the ruler follow the advices of wise men. The political thinking of Dio Chrysostom can’t be referred to the definite philosophical doctrine as he took his ideas from different teachings (Socrates and his successors, the Stoics, the Cynics, and Homer as well) and adopted them to the modern political situation in the Roman Empire.

Sergey Kocherov
National Research University «Higher School of Economics» (Nizhny Novgorod, Russia)
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 17.1 (2023) 272-286
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2023-17-1-272-286
Keywords: Jesus and Pilate, Judea and Rome, political choice, judicial decision, moral conflict.
Abstract. This article explores the circumstances of Pontius Pilate's trial of Jesus Christ and the motives that prompted Pilate to hand down the death verdict. The author has tried to present the course of the trial in the confrontation of the interests of particular people and the complexity of the historical situation, without which Pilate's behavior and his sentence receive a simplistic explanation. It is argued that although Philo of Alexandria and Josephus Flavius in their writings depicted Pilate as a cruel and implacable persecutor of their people, his actions were quite rational and driven by the interests of the Roman Empire as understood by its viceroy. The view that Pilate was inconsistent and ambiguous during the trial is refuted. Political interests, legal peculiarities and moral factors that influenced his decision are analyzed. This removes the traditional accusation that Pilate's verdict was motivated by fear of the wrath of the emperor Tiberius, something the high priests threatened him with.

Rustam Galanin
The Russian Christian Academy for the Humanities (St. Petersburg)
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 17.1 (2023) 287-304
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2023-17-1-287-304
Keywords: rational theology, Stoicism, paideia, Eros the god.
Abstract. Eros as power and desire has been traditionally considered by the Stoics within the doctrine of “things indifferent” (adiaphora). At the same time, the power of Eros and the factor of gender differences play a pivotal role not only in the Stoic cosmology but in the theory of education and in the social theory as well. The political philosophy of the early Stoics is also deeply rooted in the theory of Eros. The article is devoted to explaining of the concept of Eros the god and to identifying of how the early Stoic philosophy was influenced by similar conceptions of Plato’s philosophy and the doctrine of the Cynics.

Evgenij Derzhivitskij
St. Petersburg State University, derzhiv@mail.ru
Vadim Perov
St. Petersburg State University, vadimperov@gmail.com
Igor Larionov
St. Petersburg State University, i.larionov@spbu.ru
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 17.1 (2023) 305-323
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2023-17-1-305-323
Keywords: stoicism, virtues, civic virtues, state ideology, Roman Republic, Scipionic Circle, Cicero.
Abstract. The article is devoted to the study of the civil and political origins of the virtues in the concepts of the Middle Stoa and the reasons that led to their gradual transformation into the universal personal virtues of the "stoic sage" in the Late Stoa. The formation of politically oriented virtues was formulated and spread largely under the influence of the activities of the Scipionic Circle. The study found that the departure from political orientation was accompanied by a gradual rejection of the idea of the elitism of the "virtuous man", whose moral image was largely sanctified by the "heroic ideals" of belonging to the "divine" Rome. Historical changes have led to the fact that public life is gradually ceasing to be a "common cause" both in political terms and as a proper moral ideal. The ideas of civic virtues are losing their relevance. This contributed to a shift in emphasis on issues of personal morality, when moral self-education, both in the sense of teaching and forming oneself as a virtuous person, takes on a universal character, since it becomes the lot and personal concern of everyone. This finds expression in the ideas of the Late Stoa, whose ethical ideals are becoming increasingly popular in modern society.

Ilya Kolesnikov
Saratov State Law Academy
Saratov State Conservatory (Russia)
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 17.1 (2023) 324-339
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2023-17-1-324-339
Keywords: Laughter, Hellenism, freedom, Lucian, Menipp, theatrum mundi, godlikeness.
Abstract. The article deals with the philosophical possibilities of laughter in the Hellenistic age. At first, we specify the role of laughter in various genres of philosophical speech, and then we divide different types of laughter. Further, we analyze the use of laughter for liberation, however, we notice not the general anthropological aspect of “Culture of popular laughter”, but the specific philosophical possibilities of this liberation. If the whole world is a comedy, then philosophical laughter overcomes the private perspective — not to the “Collective body”, but to the perspective of the divine view. Finally, we explore the relation between laughter and the concept of godlikeness (ὁμοίωσις θεῷ).

Igor Tantlevskij
Saint Petersburg State University
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 17.1 (2023) 340-350
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2023-17-1-340-350
Keywords: Qoheleth (Ecclesiastes), ancient genres of dialogue, Euripides, Empedocles, Anaxagoras, immortality of spirit/soul, γνώμη, νοῦς.
Abstract. The article deals with the ancient parallels of the fifth century B.C.E. to Qoh. 12:7 (“And the dust shall return to the earth, which it was, and the spirit shall return to God who gave it”). First of all, these parallels include passages from Euripides: “That which is of the earth returns to the earth, the same which is born of the etheric seed returns to the heavenly pole” (“Chrysippus”; 839, 8–11 [ed. Nauck]); “the spirit is to the ether (πνεῦμα μὲν πρὸς αἰθέρα), and the body to the earth” (“The Suppliants,” 533–534; see also: fr. 971 [ed. Nauck]). Another parallel to Qoh. 12:7 is found in an Attic public inscription commemorating the Athenian soldiers killed at Potidaea (432 B.C.E.): “The ether took (their) souls, [the earth (took)] the bodies...” (IG I³, 1179, eds. Kirchhoff et al.). This view correlates with Empedocles’ assertion that there is neither birth (φύσις) nor death, but only the mixing and subsequent separation of mixed elements (cf.: B 8–9, 11, 15 [DK]), and the idea of Anaxagoras, who said that “birth and death are tantamount” to “change (ἀλλλοιοῦσθαι) only” (Arist. GC I, 314a.14–15). In Euripides’ tragedy “Helen”, the heroine expresses the idea that all “mind” (ὁ νοῦς) “does not live” on the death of the body, it dies “in immortal ether”; but in ether the “immortal” γνώμη which the “mind” of man “possesses” persists. In analysing these fragments, the author concludes that one would rather assume a parallel development of the concepts of the afterlife in the Mediterranean region, rather than a direct influence of Hellenic religious doctrines on Jewish thought or a philosophical dialogue between Judaeans and Hellenes at the time the Book of Qoheleth was written.

Irina Protopopova
Russian State University for the Humanities (Moscow)
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 17.1 (2023) 351-360
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2023-17-1-351-360
Keywords: Plato, Aristotle, ethics, virtue, good, transcendence.
Abstract. The purpose of this article is to compare the ethics that can be found in Plato’s Socrates with the ethics of Aristotle in the context of Plato’s and Aristotle’s understanding of the good. The first part analyzes Aristotle’s understanding of ethics. He proceeds from the fact that there is no good in itself, there are many of them. The highest good, according to Aristotle, is the good of polis; his ethics is determined by politics. The highest happiness is to live according to virtue; moral (ethical) virtue (ἀρετὴ ἠθικὴ) can be taught by suggestion and repetition of certain actions; the nature of virtue is connected with the middle, it is necessary to avoid both excess and lack of passions and actions in order to acquire the habit of sticking to the middle. The second part demonstrates the difference between Aristotelian and Platonic concepts of virtue. For Plato, the main thing is the good in itself, which is beyond being (ἐπέκεινα τῆς οὐσίας), but at the same time it is the cause of all things, the cognizable and cognition as such (R. 509b6–10). Accordingly, the good of polis for him is by no means the topmost good; in general, polis and politics are only one of the levels of the so-called visible realm of existence, where opinion rules. Since the good itself goes beyond the limits of existence, a person striving for it must go beyond the limits of existence, and his own self: such transcendence is described in the dialogues “Symposium”, “Phaedrus”, “Phaedo”; in the “Symposium”, it is emphasized that only this transcendence allows to give birth to a genuine virtue, and not merely a ghost of it. Thus, virtue according to Plato can in no way be the middle, and it is also impossible to teach it; it is in this sense that the views of Plato’s Socrates may be called anti-ethics (the word “ethics” in Plato does not exist at all).


Timothey Myakin
Novosibirsk State University (Russia)
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 17.1 (2023) 361-366
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2023-17-1-7-361-366
Keywords: Poetry of Sappho; “Song to Kypris” of Sappho; Sappho’s erotic poetry, the cult of Kypris in the Ancient Greece.
Abstract. The publication contains the first translation of Sappho's "Song to Kypris" (Sapph. Fr. 26 Neri–Cinti) into Russian. The translation is prepared on the basis of the latest papyrological discoveries, and is founded on the latest edition of the songs and fragments of Sappho by Camillo Neri and Frederico Cinti (2017). The new translation is accompanied by a comprehensive scientific commentary.

Roman Svetlov
The Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University (Kaliningrad, Russia)
Dmitry Shmonin
St Petersburg State University (Russia)
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 17.1 (2023) 367-375
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2023-17-1-367-375
Keywords: A.N. Egunov, Plato, «Symposium», speech of Pausanias, Aphrodite Pandemos.
Abstract. The archive of A. N. Egunov, a prominent Russian writer, poet, and scholar, includes unpublished fragments of his translation of the dialogue «Symposium». These fragments were prepared during his work on the 1965 edition of Plato's Selected Dialogues. Egunov carefully researched the then available translations of the «Symposium» and concluded that none of them met the requirements of a modern edition. He prepared recommendations for future translators and gave some excerpts of his own translation as a sample. In the publication we offer one of these fragments, the speech of Pausanias, as well as A. N. Egunov's discussion of the correct translation in Russian of the term "πάνδημος", one of the epithets of the goddess Aphrodite.

Andrej Mozhajsky
National Research University «Higher School of Economics» (Russia)
Institute for Strategy of Education Development of the Russian Academy of Education (Moscow)
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 17.1 (2023) 376-400
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2023-17-1-376-400
Keywords: educational travels, Koutorga, Colonel Leake, Rangavis, London, Cambridge, Oxford, the British Museum, Boeotia, Plataea, the Archaeological Society of Athens.
Abstract. The article deals with the educational travels of the outstanding Russian researcher of antiquity M.S. Koutorga, which he made in England and Greece. In the existing publications on the activities of M.S. Koutorga the trip to England has not been paid attention. This trip can be seen as preparation for a later visit to Greece, where M.S. Koutorga conducted research, especially in Boeotia. In England, Koutorga visited the famous researcher on the ancient topography of Greece, Colonel William Martin Leake, who presented M.S. Kutorga with three of his works. Colonel Leake, through a chain of personal connections, recommended Koutorga to Cambridge, Oxford, and the British Museum. In addition, Mikhail Semenovich became a member of the Cavendish Literary Club, as mentioned in a letter from Lionel Buda. Thus, with the necessary literature, M. S. Koutorga knew the places of Greece that had been less affected by previous explorations, giving him the opportunity to make his own. Having visited Greece, M. S. Koutorga also secured the necessary references. He was associated with A. M. Kumanis, A. R. Rangavis, I. K. Paparrigopoulos, and other statesmen and scientists in Greece. All this made it possible to organize the journey in the best possible way and to carry out research for subsequent publications, among which the study of the Plataean region in Boeotia occupied a special place. The article is based on archival material, most of which is published for the first time, and is accompanied by a map of the region of Plataea, on which the names mentioned by Koutorga are inscribed.

Ilia Rushkin
Independent researcher, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 17.1 (2023) 401-463
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2023-17-1-401-463
Keywords: Autolycus of Pitane, risings, settings, ancient astronomy, ancient mathematics, ancient geometry.
Abstract. Autolycus of Pitane was a Greek mathematician and astronomer of the second half of the IV century BC. Two of his treatises are extant: “On the Moving Sphere” and “On Risings and Settings”. They are among the earliest extant mathematical Greek texts. We offer a commented Russian translation of the second treatise. To our knowledge, this is the first Russian publication of this text. Our Russian translation of “On the Moving Sphere” was published earlier.

Alexei Garadja
Russian State University for the Humanities
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 17.1 (2023) 464-480
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2023-17-1-464-480
Keywords: Proclus’ Chrestomathy, Homer, the Epic Сycle, ancient grammatica.
Abstract. The publication presents a commented Russian translation of Proclus’ fragments associated with his Abridged Grammatical Chrestomathy (Πρόκλου χρηστομαθείας γραμματικῆς ἐκλογαί), which has been preserved as an epitome in the Bibliotheca of Patriarch Photius (c. 810/820–893). These fragments contain a biography of Homerus (Vita Homeri) along with six summaries of the poems included in the so-called Epic Cycle, comprising the following titles: Cypria, Ethiopis, The Little Iliad, The Sack of Ilion, The Returns, and Telegony. In the past, all these texts were ascribed to the renowned Neoplatonist philosopher Proclus Lycius (412–485), known not only by his commentaries on several of Plato’s dialogues, but by his purely philological works as well, for example his scholia to Hesiod’s Opera et dies, not to mention his own poetical compositions, the philosophically biased mythological hymns. Even today, a number of scholars are still inclined to support this attribution, though it appears that it was most likely written by an otherwise unknown philosopher’s namesake, to wit a grammarian from the Alexandrian school, who lived in the first half of the 2th century ad. The translation is based on the most recent edition of the text of the fragments prepared by Martin L. West (2003a and 2003b), who supplements Proclus’ summaries of the poems belonging to the Epic Cycle with some passages from Apollodorus’ Mythological Library and suggests, moreover, quite a number of apt conjectures compared with the textus receptus of Proclus’ fragments collated from the manuscripts by Albert Severyns, whose own edition (1963) has not as yet lost its relevance.


Alexander Sinitsyn
Russian Christian Academy for the Humanities
Rustam Galanin
Russian Christian Academy for the Humanities
Language: English
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 17.1 (2023) 481-512
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2023-17-1-481-512
Keywords: ancient Greece, polis, culture, literature, lyric poetry, novel, drama, erotica, geography, Sappho, Euripides, Longus, Lucian, Lesbos, Corinth, Sparta, hetaera, gender, sexuality.
Abstract. The work provides a brief description of the content and a critical analysis of the main provisions of the monograph by an American researcher Kate Gilhuly: Erotic Geographies in Ancient Greek Literature and Culture. London; New York: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, 2018. Рр. VI, 150. ISBN 978-1-138-74176-8.

ΣΧΟΛΗ, Vol. 17, Issue 1, complete text

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