Ancient Philosophy
and the Classical Tradition

A Journal of the Centre for Ancient Philosophy
and the Classical Tradition

ISSN 1995-4328 (Print) ISSN 1995-4336 (Online)


José María Zamora Calvo
Universidad Autónoma de Madrid
Language: English
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 16.2 (2022) 439-461
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2022-16-2-439-461
Keywords: Hermes, Julian emperor, Proclus, Damascius, Olympiodorus.
Abstract. In his exposition of the philosophical history of Neoplatonist School in Athens, Damascius attempts to prove that Isidore's soul was part of the Hermaic chain to which Proclus also belonged. According to Marinus (V. Procl. 28), Proclus had the revelation of this very fact and had learned from a dream that he possessed the soul of the Pythagorean Nicomachus of Gerasa. In the 4th and 6th centuries the expression “pattern of Hermes Logios” is transmitted through the various links of the Neoplatonic chain, Julian (Or. 7.237c), Proclus (in Parm. I.618), Damascius (V. Isid. Fr. 16) and Olympiodorus (in Gorg. 41.10.16–22; in Alc. 190.14–191.2). The formula that Aelius Aristides (Or. III.663) dedicates to the praise of Demosthenes, the best of Greek orators, arises in the context of an opposition between rhetoric and philosophy, and appears transferred and transmuted in the texts of the Neoplatonic schools to a philosophical context that defends an exegetical mode of teaching. Demosthenes, through his admirer Aristides, exerts an influence on Neoplatonism, introducing Hermes as the key piece that strengthens the chain of reason and eloquence. Hermes, the “eloquent” god or “friend of discourses”, transmits divine authority through the word of the exegete: an exceptional philosopher, a model of virtue to strive to rise to.

Vladimir Baranov
Novosibirsk State University of Architecture, Design and Arts
Language: English
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 16.2 (2022) 462-481
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2022-16-2-462-481
Keywords: Leontius of Byzantium, Maximus the Confessor, John of Damascus, Theodore the Studite, Patriarch Nicephorus of Constantinople, hypostasis, substance, properties, circumscribability.
Abstract. The theological contribution of Leontius of Byzantium played a crucial role in adapting the notions of substance and hypostasis from their original Trinitarian to a Christological context. The Leontian concepts, such as enhypostasized substance, distinction between the principle of substance and mode of existence, as well as “relational” ontology of reversed unions and distinctions at the levels of substances and hypostases was adopted by Maximus the Confessor and John of Damascus in their polemical application of Neo-Chalcedonian Christology, as well as the by the Iconophiles of the Second Iconoclasm in support of the circumscribability of Christ.

Gabriel Estrada San Juan
Universitat de Barcelona
Language: English
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 16.2 (2022) 482-492
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2022-16-2-482-492
Keywords: biography, Historia Augusta, Acholius, Marius Maximus, Ausonius.
Abstract. Among the bogus authors cited in the Historia Augusta, there are some who turn out to be masks for real authors, as part of the picaresque aspect of the work. However, the vast majority are simply disregarded as the product of the biographer’s invention. One of them is Acholius, an author cited on four occasions. We believe that there are reasons to include him in the first group.

Dmitry Kurdybaylo
Russian Christian Academy for the Humanities;
The Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia
Inga Kurdybaylo
The Bonch-Bruevich Saint-Petersburg State University of Telecommunications inga.posta@mail.ru
Language: English
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 16.2 (2022) 493-505
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2022-16-2-493-505
Keywords: Plato, Parmenides, game, Socrates, irony, Proclus Lycaeus, Damascius, Simplicius, Olympiodorus the Younger.
Abstract. The irony of Socrates is one of the essential elements of Plato’s dialogues. However, what appears ironic or playful to modern readers, was not apprehended in the same way by Neoplatonic commentators. For Proclus, one of problematic Plato’s passages concerns the “laborious game,” which refers to the refined eight hypotheses of the Parmenides. Proclus turns to various places of Plato’s dialogues where different games are mentioned. Some of them are mimetic arts, which are partly restricted in Plato’s Republic. Other games are distinguished as pertaining to “old men” and to children: the former is appropriate to philosophers, while the latter is not. Even the “laborious” mode of Parmenides’ playing is given an ontological interpretation. Damascius was aware of the “Parmenides’ game” problem, but he primarily used ready Proclean interpretation. Unsurprisingly, Damascius approaches the conclusion that Parmenides was not playing at all — despite the apparent wording of Plato and minute investigations of Proclus. The extant writings of Simplicius contain no dedicated Platonic commentaries. However, the commentary on Epictetus’ Enchiridion contains a verbose argument on human laughter and its role in a philosopher’s ethos. In general, Simplicius continues Damascius’ trend of rigorous seriousness. Olympiodorus the Younger follows his predecessors in a mere serious reading of Plato, but he acknowledges numerous instances of Socrates’ irony and joking. However, Olympiodorus dissociates Plato from Socrates’ irony and emphasises its purely didactic extent. Generally, we can conclude that the later a Neoplatonic commentator is, the less perceptive to Plato’s humour he appears.

Kazimierz Pawłowski
Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski University (Warsaw, Poland)
Language: English
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 16.2 (2022) 506-519
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2022-16-2-506-519
Keywords: Plato, Secrecy, Mystery, Mysteries, VII Letter, Phaedrus.
Abstract. The paper deals with the topic of secrecy of the philosophical message in the VII Letter of Plato. The theme suggests spiritual contexts close to the Greek Mysteries, because the secrecy was one of the key elements of Greek Mysteries, especially Eleusinian and Orphic ones, which played a special role in the formation of Greek philosophy.

Hélder Telo
Nova Institute of Philosophy (Lisboa, Portugal)
Language: English
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 16.2 (2022) 520-549
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2022-16-2-520-549
Keywords: Philosophical inquiry, astonishment, training, philosophical life, gaps, fallacy, irony.
Abstract: This article addresses two often perplexing traits in Plato’s philosophical style: first, the fact that Plato’s writings are mimetic, despite the strong criticisms of mimesis we find therein; second, the fact that this mimesis not only features the constitutive defects inherent to any mimesis, but Plato actually increases its imperfection by adding other manifest defects. Based on epistemological and psychological views taken from the Platonic corpus (especially the soul’s tripartition), I show how Plato’s philosophical mimesis uses defectiveness or imperfection to overcome the limitations of mimesis identified in the Republic. To explain this, I argue that Plato’s philosophical mimesis should be primarily conceived as an imitation of people or conversations in which views or arguments are conveyed, but rather as an imitation of the act or practice of philosophical inquiry, and that by rendering this act visible to the reader, the Platonic corpus can better teach how to perform it and better turn readers to a life determined by its performance. This is not without risks because, as a type of mimesis, philosophical mimesis can still lead to misunderstandings or affect the soul in a negative way. However, the quantitative, qualitative and tonal defects Plato introduces in his mimesis of philosophical inquiry cause astonishment and therefore have a provocative effect that helps to reduce those risks and enhance the corpus’ pedagogic and protreptic potential. Consequently, Plato’s philosophical mimesis explores the benefits of mimesis and is in strong contrast with artistic or dramatic mimesis as is understood in Republic X.

Anthony Michael Pasqualoni
Language: English
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 16.2 (2022) 550-566
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2022-16-2-550-566
Keywords: Plato, Being, time, space, image, number, recollection.
Abstract. In his dialogues Plato presents two ways of reasoning about Being. First, he constructs contrasting images that depict Being as if it were a spatiotemporal entity. Second, when a higher-order form of reasoning is needed, he uses the concept of the one and its relation to arithmos as an analogue for Being and its relation to not-Being. In Plato’s dialogues, images and arithmos are not mutually exclusive. Rather, they are complementary; Plato sometimes employs an image of a whole to portray that which is neither spatial nor temporal. Such an image is determined by a conceptual structure that joins many into one. Focusing on the Sophist and the Meno, I argue that the theory of recollection presents such an image.

Vladimir Brovkin
Institute of Philosophy and Law SB RAS (Novosibirsk, Russia)
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 16.2 (2022) 567-579
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2022-16-2-567-579
Keywords: Aristotle, Ptolemy I, Theory of Kingship, Absolute Monarchy, Virtue, Prudence, Contemplative Life.
Abstract. The article discusses the influence of Aristotle on Ptolemy I. It is established that Ptolemy I managed to put into practice the ideas of Aristotle about a virtuous monarch and a state in which citizens lead a contemplative life. The reign of Ptolemy I fully corresponded to Aristotle's ideas of absolute monarchy. According to Aristotle, a monarch can have absolute power only if he has exceptional virtue. According to Aristotle, the main political virtue is prudence. This virtue is associated with making the right decisions in public administration. As we have shown, Ptolemy I was a very prudent monarch who managed to build a strong and prosperous state in Egypt. Also, Ptolemy I brought to life the idea of Aristotle on the establishment of a major research center. The Museum and Library in Alexandria became the place where Greek scientists and philosophers could lead a contemplative life in full accordance with Aristotle's views on the ideal state.

Evgeny Borisov
Tomsk Scientific Center of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Tomsk State University
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 16.2 (2022) 580-591
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2022-16-2-580-591
Keywords: Zeno, dichotomy, physical causality, logical causality, the paradox of logical causality.
Abstract. A number of versions of Zeno’s ‘Dichotomy’ is being discussed in literature. Some of them are versions of a paradox that can be called ‘the paradox of logical causality’. It can be traced back to Benardete; in recent decades it has been discussed by Priest, Yablo, Hawthorne, Uzquiano, Shackel, Caie, and others. Unlike the original ‘Dichotomy’, the paradox of logical causality is an open problem for it has no generally accepted solution. In the paper, I examine the solution to the paradox proposed by Hawthorne and argue that it has an essential flaw caused by Hawthorne’s rejection of what he calls ‘the Change Principle’. I also compare the paradox and Zeno’s ‘Dichotomy’ and specify features shared by them, and features distinguishing the paradox. Their shared features are using infinite open series and reasoning from logical premises to physical conclusions. What distinguishes the new paradox is presupposing motion, and applying Zeno’s series to phenomena of physical interaction.

Vitaly Ivanov
Institute of philosophy RAS (Russia)
Saint Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 16.2 (2022) 592-633
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2022-16-2-592-633
Key words: concept of truth, Jesuit metaphysics and theology, cognitive truth, transcendental truth of thing, objective truth, Suárez, Izquierdo.
Abstract. The article studies the transformation of the traditional Peripatetic concept of truth in the Jesuit metaphysics and scholastic theology of the Early Modern period. The essence of this transformation is described as an increasing tendency towards a convergence of the classical scholastic concept of the "transcendental truth of things" and the new concept of "objective truth” and to replace the first concept with the second. First, the article describes and analyzes the classic for the later Jesuit tradition disposition of the concept of truth in a metaphysical treatise on truth within the framework of the VIIIth Metaphysical Disputation by Fr. Suárez and shows the traditional opposition of the formal truth of knowledge or judgment and transcendental truth as an attribute of being as such. Secondly, the article shows that an essential characteristic of Suárez's metaphysical concept of truth is the reality of truth, and not objectivity as conceivability, not limited to real entity. It is indicated that Suárez is quite familiar with the concept of “objective truth”, but applies it only in his theology, while excluding it from metaphysics. Thirdly, the article looks into the theological motives for the formation of the concept of objective truth as key for the Jesuit theology of ‘scientia media’. Finally, the article analyzes the content of the treatise on the "objective truth" of things in the Pharus scientiarum by S. Izquierdo, and also demonstrates the motives and consequences of the identification of objective and transcendental truth in Izquierdo’s ontology.

Igor I. Evlampiev
Sankt-Petersburg State University
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 16.2 (2022) 634-643
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2022-16-2-634-643
Keywords: Kabbalah, Gnostic Christianity, absolute religion, Russian philosophy.
Abstract. The article proves that the philosophical system of L.P. Karsavin has a number of concepts borrowed from Kabbalah as a basis. Karsavin describes the relationship between God and the world in accordance with the concept of tzimtzum, according to which God limited himself in a certain sphere in order to give place to created being. Karsavin's concept of evil and his idea of Adam Kadmon as the original integral, divine state of man also have Kabbalistic origins. The article expresses the conviction that the use of Kabbalistic ideas does not contradict Karsavin's statements about the Christian nature of his philosophy. By true Christianity (Orthodoxy), he means the Gnostic teaching, which was initiated by Basilides and Valentinus. Karsavin regards the tradition of Russian religious philosophy to which he belonged as an adequate and complete philosophical expression of the indicated Gnostic teaching and as an absolute form of religiosity that can unite the true, final forms of all religions, including Kabbalah, as the final form of Judaism.

Dmitri Panchenko
Saint Petersburg State University
Higher School of Economics (Saint Petersburg)
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 16.2 (2022) 644-664
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2022-16-2-644-664
Keywords: Thucydides, textual criticism, Peloponnesian war, Athens, Sparta, Lysander, Alcibiades, Xenophon, Agesilaus, Greek history, Greek historiography, Greek literature.
Abstract. Thucydides' statement that he described the entire war up to the surrender of Athens (V, 26, 1) must be taken in strict accordance with his words. On the whole, his work was completed; all that remained was to fix, supplement, decorate. The fact that in the published version the text breaks off at the presentation of the events of 411 is due to the following circumstances. During his stay in Athens, where he returned in the early summer of 404 after almost twenty years of exile, Thucydides introduced individual parts of his work to those who wish. There was a rumor about the work of Thucydides. The attention of Lysander's friends and henchmen was attracted by the presence in the work of detailed information about the establishment in Greek cities of political clientele, who were much more dependent on Lysander than on the Spartan state. The kings and other persons in the Spartan government, pushed into the background by Lysander, saw these actions of Lysander as the basis for the gradually carried out coup d'état by him. Authoritative information about the clientele founded by Lysander could pose a great danger to his career. Meanwhile, Thucydides, for some reason, returned to his Thracian possessions. Lysander went there too. In the fall of 404, Thucydides was murdered, and the manuscript of his work was stolen. Everything that seriously compromised Lysander was removed from it; the rest was saved and taken to Sparta. In the spring of 395, Lysander died in a battle. In the fall of 394, Agesilaus, who had returned to Sparta from Asia, searched the house of Lysander in order to find materials revealing that he was preparing a coup d'état. Along with the planted fake, books of the history of Thucydides were also discovered. After making sure that they did not contain anything fundamentally harmful to Spartan politics, Agesilaus handed the manuscript to Xenophon, an officer of his army, an Athenian exile and a credible writer. Xenophon published the intact part of the manuscript as it was, without editing it. The materials of the damaged part formed the basis of the first two books of his Hellenica.

Sarkis Kazarov
Southern Federal University (Russia)
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 16.2 (2022) 665-673
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2022-16-2-665-673
Keywords: Dodona, mantika, oracle, sound, cauldron, spring.
Abstract. The ancient Greeks believed in various predictions. One of the most ancient oracles of Ancient Greece was the Dodonian oracle, located in Northern Greece in a remote and mountainous region called Epirus. The main symbol of Dodona was the sacred oak, with the help of which the god Zeus announced his will. The Dodona oracle can be called the oracle of sounds: the rustle of the leaves of the sacred oak, the cooing of doves nesting on its branches, the sacred cauldrons, which, in contact with each other, emitted a melodic sound, the murmur of a spring with water that possessed miraculous powers. The blows into the cauldron also symbolized protection from some kind of harmful effect. It is still not known exactly which of them were utilized for mantics, but they all created and emitted sounds that created an appropriate emotional environment and thus influenced the feelings of visitors. But it can be assumed that at different stages in the history of the Dodona oracle, various sound means were used.

Maria Varlamova
RAS Institute of Philosophy (Russia)
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 16.2 (2022) 674-692
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2022-16-2-674-692
Keywords: Aristotle, Philoponus, soul, body, pneuma, life, moving cause, powers of soul.
Abstract. In his commentary on Aristotle’s On the soul Philoponus claims that each part of the soul relates to its own underlying body as a form to matter. Philoponus insists, that the vegetative soul relates to a solid body, whereas the irrational soul relates to a pneumatic body. At the same time the irrational soul is the first mover for the solid body. In the paper, I consider the problem of the relationship between the irrational soul and an organic or solid body. Philoponus claims, that the irrational soul needs a pneumatic body to be the mover and entelecheia of a solid body. For this reason I describe how Philoponus understood the nature and function of pneuma and I reveal the role of pneuma as instrumental cause of bodily movement and therefore as a mediator between the irrational soul and the solid body.

Olga V. Alieva
Highest School of Economics (Moscow)
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 16.2 (2022) 693-705
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2022-16-2-693-705
Keywords: Delta, stylometry, most frequent words, quantitative methods, machine learning.
Annotation. This paper tests the effectiveness of Burrow’s Delta Method on a corpus of selected prose writings in ancient Greek. When tested on a corpus of fourteen and eight authors, the method yields good results with relatively small samples (1000, 3000, and 5000 words) and different word frequency vectors (100, 200, 500 words), but its performance is worse with texts of similar genres (oratory, historical or medical writings). We conclude that it is the generic proximity that influences the results of classification most. However, in cases where confusion is more likely, such as the writings of Demosthenes and Aeschines, the method proves effective for shortlisting potential authors. Shortlists can give an adequate idea of a sample’s nearest neighbors while leaving some freedom for the researcher in interpreting the results.

Igor Tantlevskij
Saint Petersburg State University
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 16.2 (2022) 706–730
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2022-16-2-706–730
Keywords: Khirbet Qeiyafa, theophoric names, theology, Judaism, epigraphy, Ba‘al, Ba‘alism, Judah, King David.
Abstract. The excavations at the site of Khirbet Qeiyafa, the results of which have been published in recent years, shed new light on the formation of Judah’s state structure and the united Kingdom of Israel under David (or perhaps even a miniempire) as a whole. The artifacts found here testify to a powerful and well-organized state structure formed during the time of King David, with all the basic attributes inherent in it, as the Bible tells us. The author of the article pays special attention to the interpretation of the name ’Išba‘al (literally “man of Ba‘al”; alternative vocalization and interpretation: ’Ašba‘al, i.e., “Ba‘al gave”), attested in one inscription written from right to left in Canaanite script on a ceramic shard from a vessel from Khirbet Qeiyafa (the turn of the 11–10th centuries BCE), in a broad theological context. The author admits that in theophoric Judahite and Israelite names attested both in the Bible and in epigraphy — including the inscription from Khirbet Qeiyafa — of the period of Judges and the united Kingdom of Israel (at least under Saul and David) the component Ba‘al, literally “Lord,” was used to refer to the God of Israel, not to a Semitic pagan deity. It also implicitly suggests that already at the dawn of Jewish history, pious people sought to avoid pronouncing the Name of God, the Tetragrammaton, “in vain”.

Uri Gershowitz
St. Petersburg State University (Russia)
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 16.2 (2022) 731-752
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2022-16-2-731-752
Keywords: eschatology, language, translation, Hebrew, Greek, Septuagint, Midrash.
Abstract. Eschatology is one of the most important themes of Talmudic literature. With all the variety of end-time concepts and the abundance of research on the subject, the connection between universal deliverance and language remains overshadowed. This article is analyzing a composition from Debarim Rabba 1:1 that expresses the idea of improvement of the human language as a sign of the future world. What will lead to this improvement? One of the possible answers: translation of the Scripture into Greek. This answer, rather unexpected for the Sages of Talmud, will be analyzed in the context of the history of the attitude towards the Greek language in the Jewish culture of Late Antiquity. An image of a river, flowing out of the Temple from Ezekiel's prophecy (ch. 47), as an improved language of the universe, will be compared with Philo of Alexandria's concept of language.

Alexandr Pronin
St. Petersburg State University
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 16.2 (2022) 753-762
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2022-16-2-753-762
Keywords: ancient Greek theater, the origin of drama, Dionysius, bacchanal, Russian avant-garde, Evreinov, theatricality, FEKS, Kryzhitsky, eccentricity.
Abstract. The article analyzes the dynamic aspects of the manifestation of the "mythologeme of antiquity" in the theatrical theory of the outstanding figure of the Russian avant-garde Nikolai Evreinov, reveals the degree of influence of his most important postulate about the Dionysian nature of drama on the philosophical and artistic concept of the "theater of spirit and flesh" Georgy Kryzhitsky as a theorist of the early FEKS (Factory of the eccentric actor), compares their key landmarks in the history of antiquity as avant-gardists. The previously unexplored material of the theoretical works of G. is introduced into scientific circulation. Kryzhitsky of the beginning of 1921-1922, on the basis of which the hypothesis is put forward that the author, almost forgotten today, sought to realize the retrotopia of "theatrical Hellenism" in post-revolutionary Petrograd (Eccentropolis).

Aleksey Bogomolov
Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University (Kaliningrad)
Svetlov Roman
Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University (Kaliningrad)
Yaroslav-the-Wise Novgorod State University (Novgorod Veliky)
Dmitry Shmonin,
Saints Cyril and Methodius Institute of Post-Graduate Studies (Moscow)
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 16.2 (2022) 763-772
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2022-16-2-763-772
Keywords: Plato, Parmenides, apophatic dialectic, platonic theology.
Abstract. The dialogues "Parmenides" and "Sophist" are among the most important texts of Plato, where the themes of non-existence and apophaticism are considered. In the 20th century, they received interpretations radically different from the Neoplatonic one. They are now considered mainly as texts about the boundaries of language and knowledge, rather than about that ontological objectivity, which is quite openly declared in them. The authors of this article have tried to explore whether we can find additional arguments in favor of an «ontological» interpretation of Plato's apophaticism? To what extent is Plato's negative dialectic connected with Parmenides' poem «On Nature»? And wasn't Gorgias' Treatise on Non-Being one of the sources of reflection on the topic of negativity?

Evgeny Bykov
Novosibirsk State University (Russia)
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 16.2 (2022) 773-782
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2022-16-2-773-782
Keywords: religion and philosophy, mysticism, knowledge, revelation.
Abstract. Meister Eckhart is one of the most ambiguous and controversial late medieval thinkers. Many of the concepts in his teachings still remain under-studied and difficult for understanding. So B. McGinn (1981) and D. Caputo (1978) have paid particular attention to the concept of “breakthrough” (der Durchbruch), but even they, it seems to us, have not been able to establish fully the connection of this concept with other themes in Eckhart's teachings. The meaning of the concept itself in the context of solving one of the most important problems of late medieval theology and philosophy – the justification of mystical knowledge and its forms – remains insufficiently clarified.

Irina Protopopova
Russian State University for the Humanities (Moscow)
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 16.2 (2022) 783-790
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2022-16-2-783-790
Keywords: Plato, the “Parmenides”, third hypothesis, “one”, “other”, immensity.
Abstract. The main purpose of the paper is to comment on Prm. 158d3-6. Consideration of this passage is preceded by a brief overview of various approaches to “Parmenides”. The most important difference in the approaches is determined by the attitude of the researchers to the “subject” of the eight hypotheses. F. Cornford believes that “one” and “is” in Plato’s text are not unambiguous, therefore the “subjects” of hypotheses are different, and, consequently, the conclusions from these hypotheses, although different, are not contradictory. Cornford’s approach is productively developed by K. Sayre and R. Turnbull. The author’s interpretation of the “Parmenides” is based on the same premise of the ambiguity of “one” and “is”. Other researchers (R. Allen, S. Rickless, M. Tabak) disagree with this, insisting that the “subject” in all hypotheses is the same, so the conclusions of different hypotheses are contradictory, and the conclusion from the most extensive, the second hypothesis, is obviously absurd (Allen). Tabak’s point of view is particularly abrupt, assuming that Plato’s goal in the second part is a parody of the views of the Eleatics and Sophists, often presented with deliberately incorrect and absurd conclusions. Tabak believes that only the third hypothesis applies to the views of Plato himself. It is with that one that the second part of the paper is dealing, analyzig the sense of “other” in Prm. 158d3–6. The author consider what is the meaning of “nature other than eidos” in the context of the ideas of the “receptacle” and χώρa in the “Timaeus” (50d, 51a7–b1), and what is the “idea of the immensity” in the context of the reasoning about the one, many and immensity in the “Philebus” (16de). Another comment concerns the meaning of ἕτερόν τι ἐν ἑαυτοῖς γίγνεσθαι and compares several translations of this passage (Cornford, A. Hermann, S. Scolnicov, Sayre, Tabak). In conclusion, the author offers her own interpretation of “other” in connection with the seventh hypothesis of the “Parmenides”.

Daniil Dorofeev
Saint Petersburg Mining University
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 16.2 (2022) 791-813
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2022-16-2-791-813
Keywords: V.M. Severgin, Pliny the Elder, "Natural History", encyclopedia, Antiquity in Russia and Europe in the 18th century, history of science at the Mining University.
Abstract. The article is devoted to the study of the reception of the ancient heritage in European culture and its importance for the development of Russian natural science in XVIII century. For this purpose the author turns to the well-known Russian scientist and teacher Vasily Mikhajlovich Severgin (1765-1826), who was the author of the first Russian translation in Russian of the encyclopedic "Natural History" (Naturalis Historia) by Roman scientist Pliny the Elder (24-79 A.D.), many years was teaching at the Mining college (modern Saint-Petersburg Mining University, which celebrates its 250th anniversary in 2023) and is the most important Russian scientist in the field of natural history. It is on the study of the importance of Pliny the Elder and the history of his interpretation and translation for the development of European and especially Russian science in the 18th century that the main attention of the author of the article is directed. The article also covers the peculiarities of science and educational institutions in Russia and Europe in the 18th century; the biography of Severgin; the specifics of ancient Greek and ancient Roman science; the concept of "natural history" and the importance of encyclopedia as a scientific genre for the culture and science of the Enlightenment.

Valery V. Petroff
RAS Institute of Philosophy (Moscow)
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 16.2 (2022) 814-840
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2022-16-2-814-840
Keywords: Tadeusz Zielinski, Karl Kerényi, Vyacheslav Ivanov, Friedrich Nietzsche, Hippolyte Taine, Friedrich Paulsen, U. von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, classical studies, Renaissance.
Abstract. The article discusses the concept of three “Renaissances”, as outlined by Tadeusz Zielinski in the essay “The Ancient World in the Poetry of Apollon Maykov" (1899). By “Renaissances” Zielinski meant the periodic appeals of a particular European culture to the ancient legacy and, at the same time, the beneficial cultural consequences of such appeals. According to Zielinski, two renaissances of antiquity have already taken place: the “Italian” and the “Germanic” (in the 18th–19th centuries); the next should be the “Slavonic” Renaissance. The object of attention is the imagery of Zielinski, who compares the influence of antiquity on new cultures with an oceanic flow that carries the heat of the south to the cold shores of northern Europe. It is shown that Zielinski is influenced by his immediate sources — the cultural and philosophical constructions of Hippolyte Taine and Friedrich Paulsen. It is argued that Paulsen’s text depends on Taine’s, and Zielinski uses them both. The corresponding views of Russian philologists and philosophers, who shared Zielinski’s concept, are considered. On the example of the “Hungarian” works of Karl Kerényi of the 1930s, it is shown that the belief in the beneficence and the need for the revival of antiquity for national culture was not an exclusively Russian phenomenon, but was a basic ideological archetype of the international community of European classical philologists and scholars of the first half of the 20th century.


Eugene Afonasin
Novosibirsk State University
Institute of Philosophy and Law SB RAS
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 16.2 (2022) 841-861
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2022-16-2-841-861
Keywords: Neoplatonism, Late Antiquity, pagan cults, statues, sacral images.
Abstract. In the paper, I consider some aspects of religious politics in late antiquity on the basis of select fragments from Damascius’ “Philosophical History,” translated into Russian for the first time. I also observe that the archeological finds, often better than the biased literary evidences, show both the different strategies of interaction between the adherents of pagan cults and official Christianity in late antiquity and, more importantly, the non-linearity of the paths by which Christians advanced towards their goal, without ever reaching it. We see that the church authorities often permitted the total destruction of pagan sanctuaries, as happened in 392 with the Serapeum, by initiating the full-scale persecution of pagans and their physical elimination, as Damascus testifies in many sections of his history. On the contrary, in some cases they sought only to "neutralize" the pagan cult, depicting crosses on statues and using ancient temples as churches and, accordingly, to attract the pagan intellectual elite to their side. All in all, this material allows us to take a more comprehensive view of history, reconstructing a complex cultural context.

Alexei Garadja
The Russian State University for the Humanities (Moscow)
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 16.2 (2022) 862-888
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2022-16-2-862-888
Keywords: Ptolemy Chennus, Homer, ancient grammatici.
Abstract. Ptolemy Chennus is a poorly known Roman author who wrote in Greek and lived in the late 1st — beginning of 2nd century ad. His works are enumerated in the corresponding article from the Byzantine encyclopedia Suda: a collection of Paradoxical stories, a historical drama Sphinx, and an epic entitled Anthomerus; his only extant work is the Novel History, probably another title of Ptolemy’s aforementioned paradoxographical collection, which has been preserved as an epitome in the Bibliotheca of Patriarch Photius (c. 810/820–893). By his professional pursuits, apparently initiated in his native Alexandria, Ptolemy is defined as grammaticus, i.e. classical scholar, and the classics in his time were centered primarily on Homer; the tendency to thwart this great authority is evident throughout the Novel History which is teeming with a mass of blatantly unorthodox versions of various mythological stories going back to Homer. It is this unorthodoxy that the compiler of the epitome finds attractive, though unfortunately a mere summary forestalls the possibility to savour the presumed stylistic complexity of the work, as well as to form a well-grounded judgement on how serious was its author’s attitude to the fibs he tells, or on how close these fanciful rehashes came to a deliberate parody; still, it almost seems certain that the original text was truly rich in playfulness, irony, and burgeoning imagination. The publication presents the first full Russian translation of the work, accompanied with sufficiently detailed commentary, paying special attention to Eustathius’ of Thessalonica (c. 1115–1195/6) Commentaria to Homeric poems, the only literary source where some few parallels to the wildly unconventional data provided by Ptolemy may be found.

ΣΧΟΛΗ, Vol. 16, Issue 2, complete text

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