Ancient Philosophy
and the Classical Tradition

A Journal of the Centre for Ancient Philosophy
and the Classical Tradition

ISSN 1995-4328 (Print) ISSN 1995-4336 (Online)


Miguel López-Astorga
Institute of Humanistic Studies “Juan Ignacio Molina”, University of Talca (Chile)
Language: English
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 13.1 (2019) 8-18
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2019-13-1-8-18
Keywords: Formal schemata; Heraclitus of Ephesus; logic; reasoning; time.
Abstract. The theories accounting for cognition based on formal schemata often claim that there is a logic in the human mind. From the thesis on the river given by Heraclitus of Ephesus, in this paper, it is argued that, if that logic exists, it cannot be simple, and that, at a minimum, it requires the assumption of some kind of temporal elements, which, in general, seem not to be considered in such theories. In particular, some reflections about possible ways those elements could be taken into account are presented.

Eleni Panagiotarakou
Concordia University, Montreal (Canada), eleni.panagiotarakou@concordia.ca
Language: English
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 13.1 (2019) 19-31
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2019-13-1-19-31
Keywords: Aristogeiton, Hippias, Peisistratid tyranny, Rational Choice.
Abstract. This paper seeks to address the extent to which ancient historical actors might be seen to have exhibited what might be described as rational motives. In particular, it examines a number of strategic interactions employed by the Athenian tyrant Hippias in his interactions of Aristogeiton, the protagonist of an unsuccessful coup d’etat. A secondary objective of this paper is to explore Hippias’ reactionary policies following his brother’s assassination, namely, whether Hippias’ choice of external allies, in the face of possible exile, were irrational as suggested by some ancient authors.

Sergei Garin
Kuban State University, Krasnodar, svgarin@gmail.com
Language: English
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 13.1 (2019) 32-47
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2019-13-1-32-47
Keywords: History of logic, Alexander of Aphrodisias, Theophrastus, Galen, categorical syllogism, Stoics, ellipsis.
Abstract. The article deals with ancient ideas on the nature of syllogistics on the example of Empire's official Peripatetic philosopher, Alexander of Aphrodisias. We interpret Alexander's position on the syllogistic form as a theory of constant function. Alexander offers a conjunctive and purely formal understanding of the nature of syllogistic necessity. This approach to the modal properties of assertoric judgments differs from Theophrastus’ ontological position, who believed that modal characteristics of assertoric premises are determined by looking to the state-of-affairs to which they refer. Also, the paper examines Theophrastus’ legacy of hypothetical syllogisms related to Alexander. Stoic and Peripatetic versions are also compared against the background of Alexander's logical amalgamation. The article elucidates late “Peripatetic conservatism” regarding the hypothetical syllogistics. We discuss the syntax of propositional / term relations (εἰ τὸ Α, τὸ Β), tackling the problem of grammatical ellipsis.

Igor Tantlevskij
St. Petersburg State University, tantigor@mail.wplus.net
Language: English
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 13.1 (2019) 48-57
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2019-13-1-48-57
Keywords: Ecclesiastes, Zechariah, chap. 3-4, allegory, symbol, life, death, immortality, youth, maturity, old age.
Abstract. Analyzing the famous passage Eccl. 12:5b-7, the author of the article comes to the conclusion that the expression "the almond tree blossomed" (12:5bα) contains the allegory of man’s birth and his young years; the phrase "the locust/locust tree became loaded" (12:5bβ) can be interpreted as an indication of the mature, productive/fruitful years of human life activity; the allegory of the caper, falling to winter ("and the caper bush fell"; 12:5bγ), correlates with the metaphorical description of old age and the approach of death in Eccl. 12:1b-2. So, one can assume that the passage Eccl. 12:5bα-γ includes the allegories of man's earthly birth, making up of his personality, maturity and old age in the form of natural phenomena that take place in Judea throughout the year — approximately from the second half of January to December. The allegory of the breaking "silver cord" (Eccl. 12:6aα), symbolizing the earthly demise, can be understood as a break in the connection between the spirit and the flesh of man (cf.: Eccl. 12:7). In 12:6аβ-b, Ecclesiastes adduces the allegories of death, expressed through the broken vessels ("golden bowl", "jar", a certain "vessel"), symbolizing the human body. The context also suggests that an allusion to the human spirit implicitly present in these allegories as well, which is symbolized by olive oil (in the "golden bowl") and water (in the "jar" and in the "vessel"), - not directly called, but contextually implied - returning to their eternal Fountain (cf.: Jer. 2:13, 17:13, also: Ps. 36:10) when their temporary receptacles are broken. The "spring" and the "well" (Eccl. 12:6b) are veritable symbols of life, and in the light of Eccl. 12:7b - perhaps symbols of eternal life in the Book of Ecclesiastes. As for the allegory of "the golden bowl", it clearly goes back to Zech. 4:2-3. In the light of the allegorical picture attested in Zech., chap. 4, and the text of Eccl. 12:7b, the allegory of Eccl. 12:6aβ - "the golden bowl will crack" - can presuppose implicitly not only the death of the body/"the golden bowl", but also that its contents - "oil", symbolizing the spirit abided in the body - will merge with the "oil" of the Divine Luminary, scil., with the Spirit of God.

Andrei Seregin
Institute of philosophy RAS (Moscow), avis12@yandex.ru
Language: English
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 13.1 (2019) 58-77
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2019-13-1-58-77
Keywords: ancient ethics, good and evil, indifferents, normative ethics, social morality, Stoicism.
Abstract. Stoic ethical theory is famously “rigorist” in the sense that it regards all kinds of generally recognized non-moral goods and evils as “indifferents” that do not influence human happiness or misery. One of the problems with rigorism is that prima facie it seems to make impossible even a rudimentary social morality, for if non-moral evils, experienced by the victims of various inhumane actions, actually do them no harm and do not contribute to their being unhappy, then why should we regard the infliction of these evils as morally wrong? In this paper I examine the question of whether such a critique of Stoic rigorism (put forward, for example, by Claudia Card in her book “The Atrocity Paradigm”) is justified. I argue that, on the one hand, one cannot find convincing counterarguments against it within Stoic tradition itself (e.g, the distinction between “preferred” and “rejected” indifferents, in my view, is of no avail for the Stoics in this case), but, on the other, the validity of this criticism depends on what we take to be the ultimate normative standard of moral evaluation. It is only valid under the assumption that some kind of “humanistic consequentialism” (as I call it here) is true. I also try to demonstrate that, if this kind of consequentialism is true, then similar criticism may be applied to many other ethical theories regardless of whether they endorse rigorism or not. (Personally, I believe “humanistic consequentialism” to be true, although I do not argue for this thesis here).

Alexei Garadja
The Russian State University for the Humanities (Moscow), agaradja@yandex.ru
Language: English
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 13.1 (2019) 78-82
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2019-13-1-78-82
Keywords: Plato, the Republic, Allegory of the Cave, vertep.
Abstract. The paper deals with Plato’s Allegory of the Cave at the beginning of the 7th book of the Republic, focusing on the two lowest stages of the Cave (and the corresponding parts of the Line from the simile in the Sixth book), occupied, respectively, by ‘prisoners and puppeteers’; the identity of these groups is questioned, along the lines set by J. Wilberding in his homonymously entitled article. The puppeteers and their show are examined with regard to the lexical peculiarities of Plato’s text, in particular his usage of thauma and the derived thaumatopoios. The overall ironical, playful character of the Allegory is emphasized, calling for cautious reading beyond its apparent face value. A Russian term vertep, meaning both ‘a cave’ and ‘a portable puppetshow’, may prove itself helpful in approaching the sense Plato actually intended with his Allegory.

Oksana Goncharko
Saint-Petersburg Mining University, Russian Christian Academy for Humanities, goncharko_oksana@mail.ru
Dmitry Goncharko
Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia, Russian Christian Academy for Humanities
Language: English
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 13.1 (2019) 83-93
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2019-13-1-83-93
Keywords: history of logic, late antique logic, Platonic dialogue, Byzantine philosophy.
Abstract. The paper focuses on interactive dialogue-form strategies in the framework of the late antique Greek and early Byzantine logical traditions. The dialogue by Porphyry On Aristotle Categories is a perfect example of the Neoplatonic approach to build logic in a Plato style. The main protagonistresses of the dialogue are The Question and The Answer, who act as collocutors do in traditional Platonic dialogues. It is proposed to consider the dialogue in the context of three perspectives: in accordance with the tradition of the Platonic dialogue; in the light of Aristotle’s education system; in its relation to the late antique and medieval Greek logical dialogue experiments.

Maria Varlamova
Saint Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation, boat.mary@gmail.com
Language: English
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 13.1 (2019) 94-105
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2019-13-1-94-105
Keywords: Aristotle, embryogenesis, semen, soul, life, nature, organism, parts of soul.
Abstract. In De generatione Animalium Aristotle proposes a theory of embryogenesis and indicates its causes. An account of embryo’s animation plays an important role in this theory. From the moment of conception foetus is generated as a living and animated being, and its actual soul appears as a principle of its development and growth. However, unless embryo comes to perfection its soul is also incomplete. The animation of the embryo is a process, which consists of successive actualization of its soul’s parts and powers. Parts of the soul are both the causes of generation and the actuality of yet non-perfected embryo. In this paper Aristotle’s conception of embryogenesis will be considered in the context of his doctrine of soul-parts and organic composition.

Konstantin Sharov
Moscow State University, const.sharov@mail.ru
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 13.1 (2019) 106-114
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2019-13-1-106-114
Key words: Roman women, social power, Roman Empire, mothers of cities, city patronesses, gender power, ancient Rome.
Abstract. The titles “mothers of cities” and “patronesses (protectresses) of cities” were awarded in the Roman Empire by the city council or local Senate of the city in question. The paper is an attempt to understand what was the relationship between the women who wore these titles and the citizens who awarded them. It is concluded that the agreement to accept the titles of “mothers” and “patronesses” of cities and the implementation of corresponding activities within the relevant offices, allowed Roman women to enter the system of social power in the Empire, thus bypassing the legislative prohibition for women to occupy a political office and participate in elections.

Dmitry A. Shcheglov
Saint Petersburg Branch of the S.I. Vavilov Institute for the History of Science and Technology RAS, shcheglov@yandex.ru
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 13.1 (2019) 115-136
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2019-13-1-115-136
Keywords: ancient geography, ancient cartography, Claudius Ptolemy, Ptolemy’s Geography, Ptolemy’s map, periploi, Periplus of the Pontus Euxinus, Pseudo-Arrian, Stadiasmus of the Great Sea, Roman itineraries, Antonine Itinerary, cartometric methods.
Abstract. In this paper I would like to draw attention to several features inherent to Ptolemy’s Geography that limit the effectiveness of different mathematical approaches to georeferencing (i.e. locating within the modern coordinate system) its unidentified places. Out of the 6,300 coordinate points listed in Ptolemy’s Geography, approximately 50% still don’t have recognized identifications on the modern map. This makes the Geography a real bonanza for researchers developing different methods to translate Ptolemy’s coordinates into the modern ones. Most of these methods can be effective only insofar as Ptolemy’s Geography is regarded as an example of what David Woodward called “equipollent-coordinate space” where “every place in the system is of equal geometric significance.” This kind of space is supposed to be as continuous and homogeneous as the space of the modern maps is. My central thesis is that Ptolemy’s space was closer to what Woodward has called “route-enhancing space,” in which “the routes are endowed with the importance of direct observation,” hiding behind the mask of the “equipollent” one. This hidden nature of Ptolemy’s space manifests itself in two interrelated aspects: it was discrete and hierarchically organized. On the one hand, there are reasons to suppose that most points on Ptolemy’s map were originally located not in relation to their nearest neighbors, but rather in relation to a few distant reference points. On the other hand, Ptolemy tended to distribute all places more evenly throughout the entire space they occupy and to round their coordinates as much as possible. These features of Ptolemy’s method result in that, even if he tried to follow his sources most closely, each separate point on his map could have been displaced relative to its original neighborhood. The displacements are often so significant and unpredictable that they cannot be adequately described by a single continuous function. Mathematical methods remain, of course, an important tool for studying Ptolemy’s Geography and, in particular, for georeferencing its unidentified places. However, like any instrument, these methods have limited effectiveness. The specific features of Ptolemy’s method pointed out in the present paper can contribute to our understanding of how these methods can be improved and enhanced.

Victoria Pichugina
Institute for Strategy of Education Development of the Russian Academy of Education (Moscow), Pichugina_V@mail.ru
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 13.1 (2019) 137-152
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2019-13-1-137-152
Keywords: educational landscape, school, mentoring apprenticeship, ancient Greek tragedy, Aeschylus, Euripides, Sophocles.
Abstract. Ancient Greek tragedies of the 5th century BC are considered as double texts (texts for scenic incarnation and texts for reading) that ensured the development of school institutions and mentoring apprenticeship and reflected the pedagogical positions of playwrights on these institutions. Texts of tragedies as texts for scenic incarnation were aimed at adult students - townspeople, who continued their education in the theater as a special educational landscape - school on the stage. Texts of tragedies as texts for reading were texts for schoolchildren who used them as notebooks with prescriptions for rewriting or as text-exercises for reading aloud, reciting, memorizing.

Timothey Myakin
Novosibirsk State University, miackin.timof@yandex.ru
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 13.1 (2019) 153-179
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2019-13-1-153-179
Keywords: the cult of Venus in ancient Rome, religion in the Roman literature, Varro, Lucretius, the “Hymn to Venus”.
Abstract. The true meaning of the image of the goddess Venus, its role and place in the philosophical poem of Lucretius, reveals itself through a comparative analysis of the word usage in Lucretius and contemporary Roman poetry (and prose) taken in the context of philosophical and religious quest of Roman writers of the first century BC. All 31 cases of using the name Venus in Lucretius are analyzed. New arguments are being advanced in favor of Cl. Beltrão da Rosa and M. Eichler’s apprehension of the ‘De rerum natura’ as a poem in the genre of physical theology stricto sensu. Cf. Varr. De Rer. Div. Fr. 8, 2-5 Cardauns.

Valerij Gushchin
Higher School of Economic (Perm, Russia), valerii2012@yandex.ru
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 13.1 (2019) 180-197
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2019-13-1-180-197
Keywords: Athens, mythology, Plato, autochthony, Euripides.
Abstract. Myth of autochthony was very popular in Athens in the 5th and 4th centuries B.C. It states that the ancestors of the Athenians allegedly inhabited this territory from the most ancient times and were born by the Earth itself. Autochthony became a part of the national image and state propaganda. In the 4th century B.C. it was an integral part of the Funeral speeches that praised the exploits of the lost Athenians. The birth from earth and residence in one territory were different aspects of autochthony, which were merging into a single whole in the 5th century B.C. The integration of these myths occurred, perhaps, in the 5th century B.C. and was associated with the development of democracy. We however believe that it was a consequence of the Persian wars and the transformation of Athens into the Empire (arche).

Oleg Bazaluk
Pereyaslav-Khmelnytsky Hryhoriy Skovoroda State Pedagogical University (Kyiv), bazaluk@ukr.net
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 13.1 (2019) 198-207
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2019-13-1-198-207
Keywords: arete, episteme, nous, techne, Dasein, neurophilosophy.
Abstract. In the paper, the author uses the methods of neurophilosophy in order to rethink arete as a key notion of ancient philosophy. In neurophilosophy the author combines: a) contemporary views on neuroevolution, given by neurosciences; b) the most important meanings of Heidegger's fundamental ontology; and c) the new meanings of Dasein, which derive from the philosophy of cosmos. Arete is taken as a basis of the being of the Dasein “mentality about”, while the “dianoetic virtues” of Aristotle are rethought as the existentials of arete.

Marina Volf
Tomsk State University, Novosibirsk State University, rina.volf@gmail.com
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 13.1 (2019) 208-225
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2019-13-1-208-225
Keywords: Gorgias, sophistic, sophists, argumentation, “On not-being or on nature”.
Abstract. The well-known evidence of Sextus Empiricus in Adv. Math. 7.65-87 is one of the two major evidence about Gorgias's treatise “On Not-Being or On Nature” along with “De Melisso Xenophane Gorgia”. The paper offers the analyses of the persuasive structure is this passage and discusses the arguments, which Sextus and, presumably, Gorgias use in this treatise. Also the paper compares formal persuasive structure of Gorgias’ treatise as it presented in Adv. Math., on the one hand, and MXG, on the other.

Alexey Streltsov
Institute of Philosophy and Law SB RAS (Novosibirsk), streltsov@mail.ru
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 13.1 (2019) 226-234
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2019-13-1-226-234
Keywords: Body, impassible passion, passions, psychology of Plotinus, perception, soul.
Abstract. The article purports to demonstrate that the seemingly paradoxical concept of «impassible passion» in Enn. III 6 1 sheds light on Plotinus’ understanding of the character of impassibility of the soul in its union with the body. Appropriation of the passions of the ensouled body by the soul does not lead to its mutability and passibility, although it is indeed the lower part of the soul that is the cause of passions. Thus, the soul is engulfed by the passions without being really affected by them (at least in the way the ensouled body is). The practical implication of such dichotomy of impassible passion lies in necessity in ascetic lifestyle to ensure self-realization of its own impassibility on behalf of the soul, resulting in the move upwards.

Dmitri Panchenko
Saint-Petersburg State University, Higher School of Economics (Saint-Petersburg)
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 13.1 (2019) 236-250
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2019-13-1-236-250
Keywords: Cosmology, theories of the Sun, Moon and Earth, geographic horizons, the Pythagoreans, Parmenides, Thales, Anaximander, Anaximenes, Anaxagoras, Greek religion, Greek poetry.
Abstract. According to a standard idea of Greek science and philosophy, the shape of the sun is spherical. Such an idea appears already in Aristotle who offers, however, no good account for it, and only Stobaeus cites an authority, or rather collective authority, the Pythagoreans, for an early recognition of the idea in question. The ancient tradition left no direct evidence of how the sphericity of the sun was recognized, and the issue attracted very little attention in modern scholarship. I propose that in the late sixth century new empirical knowledge about the sun reached the Aegean and Italy. Some people who crossed the northern tropic repeatedly observed the sun from its ‘other’ side, for in the height of the summer an observer located south of the northern tropic saw the midday sun in the north. This made impossible Anaximander’s idea of the sun as a body containing fire and having one aperture and triggered a search for a better version. Since the sun invariably displayed a circular outline at any time, at any place and on all sides of the horizon, one had to consider the possibility that its shape was either spherical or ‘bowl-like’. The study of lunar light that led to the discovery of the sphericity of the moon was also helpful. The doctrine of a spherical sun was firmly established by the consensus of professional astronomers rather than due to an initiative by an outstanding thinker; however, one may think that Parmenides contributed to it. A spherical sun cannot be a sphere of fire - without a container, fire would have dispersed. This problem brought about a number of theories that treated the sun as a kind of mirror, etc. Further, a spherical sun that issues a reflected light was recognized to have been a solid and hence a heavy body, which contributed to approaching the spheres of the Sun, Moon and Earth in a similar way and making the Earth a planet.

Daniil Dorofeev
Saint-Petersburg Mining University; North-Western State Medical University named after I. Mechnikov, dorofeev61@mail.ru
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 13.1 (2019) 251-268
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2019-13-1-251-268
Keywords: human identity, selfhood, ayto to ayto, soul, being, Plato, ancient anthropology.
Abstract. The article is devoted to Plato’s Alcibiades I and explores its main question: what is your proper self? The author pays special attention to the concept of “ayto to ayto”, which he takes to mean “selfhood”. This concept is analyzed as the first fundamental philosophical form of understanding of human identity, which Plato viewed as a soul. Plato fundamentally distinguishes essence of a person (ayto to ayto) from things that belong to a person, the attributes of human being (such as his body and material property). The author explores the Platonic understanding of human identity in the context of ancient ontology and anthropology, which includes an analysis of the relationship of a single person and universal being, authentic and inauthentic Ego, the soul (mind) and the body, the significance of “care about self” (epimeilea heautou) and “cognition of self” (gnothi seautou), etc. The concept of Plato represents the first experience of comprehending the human identity ("ayto to ayto" as soul) which appears as impersonal subject and media Being, but realized in perspective of self-correlation "care of self" and "cognition of self" by particular man.

Maya Petrova
Institute of World History RAS (Moscow), beionyt@mail.ru
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 13.1 (2019) 269-284
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2019-13-1-269-284
Key words: poetry, poetic texts, author, education, Middle Age.
Abstract. The paper examines what texts of Christian poets were used by Bede the Venerable in his De arte metrica; how he quoted them. It is discussed how the norms of classical poetry were superseded in the schools of the early Middle Age, and how they were replaced by Christian ones.

Vsevolod Ladov
Tomsk State University, Tomsk Scientific Center SB RAS, ladov@yandex.ru
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 13.1 (2019) 269-284
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2019-13-1-269-284
Keywords: The Liar Paradox, ancient philosophy, Philetas, Russell, Ramsey, logical paradox, semantic paradox.
Abstract. The Liar Paradox has been widely discussed from the ancient times and preserved its importance in contemporary philosophy of logic and mathematics. At the beginning of the 20th century, F.P. Ramsey asserted that the Liar Paradox is different from pure logical paradoxes such as Russell’s paradox. The Liar Paradox is connected with language and can be considered a semantic paradox. Ramsey's point of view has become widespread in the logic of the 20th century. The author of the article questions this view. It is argued that the Liar Paradox cannot be unequivocally attributed to the semantic paradoxes and therefore Ramsey's point of view should be revised.

Kirill Prokopov
Higher School of Economics (Moscow), kirillprokopov@gmail.com
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 13.1 (2019) 294-306
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2019-13-1-294-306
Keywords: Plato, Greek magic, Greek medicine, pharmakon, epode.
Abstract. Corpus Platonicum is one of our primary evidence on the history of Greek magic in the classical period and with other sources it gives the knowledge on those who practiced magic-working (magoi, goetes, pharmakeis and epodoi). Plato is well known for his critics of magicians in the Republic and the Laws yet picturing Socrates as a magician and enchanter in other dialogues. I will address this apparent inconsistency by examining pharmakon (drug) and epode (incantation) as two magical terms that we know already from pre-platonic texts, while in the dialogues Plato uses them for depicting a variety of Socratic philosophical practices: in the Charmides Socrates presented as a follower of Thracian medical-magical practitioner, in the Theaetetus he appears as a midwife of the souls, in the Phaedo as a prophet and a servant of Apollo and in the Republic as a lover of poetry who places his own incantation in opposition to poetry’s mimetic charm. As it follows, the magic of Socrates is a counter-magic to the bewitchment and jugglery of a sophistry and mimetic poetry. By enchanting pharmakon with epode Socrates neutralizes the risk of pharmakon being dangerous drug: a model for a method that Socrates is famed for yet expressed in the words of magic.

Nataliya Shok
Privolzhsky Research Medical University (Nizhni Novgorod, Russia), shok.nataliya@gmail.com
Andrey Shcheglov
I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University (Sechenov University), staropomor@yandex.ru
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 13.1 (2019) 307-314
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2019-13-1-307-314
Keywords: history of medicine, philosophy of medicine, Pythagoras, Hippocrates, Galen, Alcmaeon, opposites.
Abstract. Article focuses on the influence of Pythagorean teaching on medicine. This allows examining the history of medicine as part of the philosophy and history of science. Among the philosophical ideas of the Pythagoreans significant to medicine are the ideas of opposites, mathematical proof and harmony. The magical tendencies typical for the teaching of the Pythagoreans should be seen as a factor limiting the influence of their teaching on medicine. It was some elements of Pythagorean teaching that were important to the development of medicine, rather than Pythagorean teaching as a whole. Certain ideas of Pythagorean teaching were developed within medicine as well, such as in the use of the apodictic method, based on the practice of anatomical dissection, teaching on general pathology and clinical classification. Article highlights the dual nature of Pythagorean teaching, which was based on both rational and magical elements.

Roman V. Svetlov and Denis A. Fedorov
Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia, spatha@mail.ru, piarman@gmail.com
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 13.1 (2019) 315-329
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2019-13-1-315-329
Keywords: Language Policy, Ancient Rome, Roman Philology.
Abstract. In this article are examine certain philological beliefs of Julius Cesar in the context of the “Language Politic” of Roman expansionism. Based on the remaining fragments of the grammatical tract De Analogia, the authors come to the conclusions that Cesar wanted to create a language norm that is free from vulgarities and distortions, the one that adhere to strict grammatical rules, which correspond to the spirit of traditional Roman culture, religion and government. We think that in this treatise Cesar shows himself not only as a jealous defender of linguistic antiquarianism but also as an active political reformer, who corrects and transforms the Latin language, infected, in his view, by the illness of barbarization.

Irina Protopopova
Russian State University for the Humanities (Moscow), plotinus70@gmail.com
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 13.1 (2019) 330-338
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2019-13-1-330-338
Keywords: Socrates," Socratic question", Plato, Xenophon, Schleiermacher, Vlastos.
Abstract. The article deals with new approaches to the solution of the so-called “Socratic question” associated with the search for a “historical” Socrates in different sources. The author outlines the history of the issue starting with Schleiermacher and his distinction between the images of Socrates in Plato and Xenophon. It is shown how, at the beginning of the 20th century, a consensus on the authenticity of Plato’s Socrates was reached (Robin, Taylor, Burnet, Maier), and then a sceptical view on the possibility itself to ever solve the “Socratic question” developed (Gigon). Vlastos’ position, which became influential in the late 20th century, is considered: he believed that Socrates of early Platonic dialogues is “historical”, while Socrates of the middle dialogues is a fiction of Plato’s. The second part of the article provides a brief overview of the six editions devoted
to Socrates in 2006-2018, and the conclusion is made that there is an obvious trend towards a return to the sceptical position of Gigon in regard to the “Socratic question”.

Vitaly Ogleznev
Tomsk State University, ogleznev82@mail.ru
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 13.1 (2019) 339-348
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2019-13-1-339-348
Keywords: paraphrases, fictitious entity, real entity, predicaments.
Abstract. The article presents Bentham’s theory of fictionalism in the form in which it is developed in his Fragment on Ontology and Essay on Logic. It is shown that interest in Bentham’s fictionalism is connected not only and not so much with the fact that it is a necessary part of his philosophical conception, but also with the fact that Bentham’s method of explanation of fictitious entities inspired by Aristotle’s logic and his Predicaments, modified the methodology of modern philosophy. The fictitious entities must be defined by a method of definition that Bentham invented, and termed “Paraphrasis”. This involves placing the definiendum in a sentence, and then paraphrasing it by translating the whole sentence into a sentence equivalent in meaning in which the definiendum does not appear. Thus, Bentham’s paraphrasis and theory of fictitious entities influenced the development of philosophical as well as legal conceptions of the 20th century.


Eugene Afonasin
Institute of Philosophy and Law SB RAS (Novosibirsk)
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 13.1 (2019) 349-357
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2019-13-1-349-357
Keywords: ancient psychology, dialogues, Plato, Empedocles, eschatology, underworld.
Abstract. Heraclides of Pontus (c. 388-310 BCE), a Platonic philosopher, worked in various literary genres. He discussed such typical Platonic topics as the transmigration of the soul, composed philosophical lives, dialogues or treaties about politics, literature, history, geography, etc., and wrote a series of works on astronomy and the philosophy of nature. Nothing is preserved. The present publication contains a collection of the testimonies about Heraclides’ lost psychological and eschatological writings. The evidences are translated and numbered according to a new edition by Schütrumpf et al. 2008.

Eugene Afonasin
Tomsk State University, Institute of Philosophy and Law SB RAS (Novosibirsk)
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 13.1 (2019) 358-374
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2019-13-1-358-374
Keywords: ancient biography, dialogues, doxography.
Abstract. Heraclides of Pontus (c. 388-310 BCE), a Platonic philosopher, worked in various literary genres and wrote on such topics as psychology, politics, literature, history, geography, astronomy and the philosophy of nature. Nothing is preserved. The present publication contains a collection of the testimonies about Heraclides’ life and writings. The evidences are translated and numbered according to a new edition by Schütrumpf et al. 2008.

Anna Afonasina
Novosibirsk State University, Russia, afonasina@gmail.com
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 13.1 (2019) 375-381
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2019-13-1-375-381
Keywords: Pre-Socratic, Empedocles, Strasbourg papyrus, ancient cosmogony.
Abstract. A new commented translation of Empedocles’ fragment B17 into Russian with the addition of several new lines available in the Strasbourg papyrus.


Victoria K. Pichugina
Institute for Strategy of Education Development of the Russian Academy of Education, Pichugina_V@mail.ru
Yana A. Volkova
RUDN University (People’s Friendship University of Russia)
Language: English
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 13.1 (2019) 382-385
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2019-13-1-382-385
Keywords: educational landscape, ancient polis, anthropological practices of the city.
Abstract. This is an overview of the presentations and discussions conducted in the framework of the same-name international seminar, organized by the department of philosophy of the Institute of philosophy and law SB RAS (Novosibirsk). This seminar is the second in a series of seminars where a wide range of issues relating to historical-pedagogical, historical-archaeological, and philosophical-anthropological research of the formation, development and evolution of urban educational spaces are discussed, each of them being a localization of a particular anthropological practice.

Anton Didikin
Higher School of Economics (Moscow), abdidikin@bk.ru
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 13.1 (2019) 386-392
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2019-13-1-386-392
Keywords: normativism, metaphysics, retribution, imputation, causality, philosophy of law.
Abstract. The paper analyzes the arguments of normativism on historical and philosophical reconstruction of the idea of retribution in ancient philosophy as a prototype of the principle of causality. Based on the Kelsen’s ideas presented in the book Society and Nature, the features of mythological, religious and philosophical justification of the idea of retribution for sins and violations of positive rules in ancient society are revealed. The author comes to the conclusion that the idea of retribution, which is methodologically important for building a pure theory of law, is further transformed into the principle of imputation, which characteristic for the social studies and humanities, within Kelsen denies the principle of causality.

ΣΧΟΛΗ, Vol. 13, Issue 1, complete text