Ancient Philosophy
and the Classical Tradition

A Journal of the Centre for Ancient Philosophy
and the Classical Tradition

ISSN 1995-4328 (Print) ISSN 1995-4336 (Online)


Geoffrey Bowe
Istanbul Technical University (Turkey)
Language: English
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 14.1 (2020) 7-25
Keywords: Aristotle, Alexander of Aphrodisias, Aquinas, Albertus Magnus, Metaphysics, Automata, Wonder.
Abstract. In this article, I argue that Albertus Magnus and Thomas Aquinas read a certain passage of Aristotle's Metaphysics on the nature of metaphysical curiosity in a way that is inconsistent with the earlier reading of the same passage by Alexander of Aphrodisias. The passage has to do with Aristotle's use of mechanical automata as a metaphor for kinetic mimesis in his metaphysics. The result of the variant reading of the passage in question is that these Scholastic readings emphasize universal causality as a vehicle of “wonder banishment” in metaphysics at the expense of recognizing the key metaphysical principle that Aristotle is suggesting. Such readings actually turn out to be difficult to maintain with the example of mechanical automata that Aristotle employs. I argue that the absence of the availability of Alexander's commentary to Albert and Aquinas contributes to their variant and inconsistent reading. There are three main parts and a conclusion. Part I discusses the passage from Aristotle's Metaphysics in question, which I call the thaumata passage, as well as Alexander's commentary on it. Part II discusses the unavailability of Alexander's commentary to Albert, Aquinas and their predecessors. Part III discusses the variant scholastic readings of the thaumata passage and how these readings, which take Aristotle's mechanical automata as chance occurrences result in an emphasis on wonder banishment through universal causal reasoning that is inconsistent with the example Aristotle uses in the thaumata passage. By way of conclusion I suggest that even had Alexander's commentary been available to Aquinas, he would have understood the passage as more akin to remarks on magic than to metaphysics.

Igor Tantlevskij
St. Petersburg State University (Russia)
The Babylonian Exile of the Judaeans and the Formation of the Doctrine of the Bodily Resurrection from the Dead: From the Naturalistic Allegory of the Collective Revival of the Jews upon their Expected Return to Judaea through the Personified Image of the People’s Rising from the Dead to the Concept of an Individual Eschatological Resurrection in the Flesh
Language: English
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 14.1 (2020) 26-37
Keywords: Formation of the doctrine of the bodily resurrection, eschatology, Babylonian exile of the Judaeans, the concept of an individual eschatological resurrection in the flesh, the Servant of the Lord, Books of Isaiah, Ezekiel, Job, Daniel.
Abstract. The author reveals the following sequence in the formation of the Jewish doctrine of the bodily resurrection of the dead: during the Babylonian captivity of the Judaeans, a naturalistic allegory of their revival upon their expected return to their Motherland arises (Ezek. 37:1–14, Isa. 26:19, 41:14); by the end of the period of exile / at the very beginning of the Persian period, the personified image of the people’s rising from the dead is developing (the allegory of the Servant of the Lord in Isa. 42:1–9, 49: 1–7, 50:4–9, 52:13–53:12; perhaps also the image of Job, cf. especially: Job 19:25–27a and 42:5, 7–17). In the time of another national catastrophe — the persecution of the faithful Jews under Antiochus IV Epiphanes — the concept of an individual eschatological resurrection in the flesh arises; at this receiving of the afterlife requital is assumed to be realized in the body (Dan. 12:1b–3, 13).

José María Zamora Calvo (Spain)
Universidad Autónoma de Madrid
Language: English
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 14.1 (2020) 38-56
Keywords: Axiochus, immortality of the soul, consolation, Pedro Díaz de Toledo, Beatus Rhenanus.
Abstract. The aim of this article is to trace the influence of Axiochus, an apocryphal text attributed to Plato, on Humanism. The dialogue, which belongs to the literary genre of “consolation”, addresses the theme of contempt of death and the immortality of the soul. The jurist Pedro Díaz de Toledo (1410/15 – 1466) translated it into Spanish in 1444 from a Latin version entitled De morte contemnenda, which Cencio de’ Rustici had translated eight years earlier, probably from the Greek codex provided by Joannes Chrysoloras, the Vaticanus gr. 1031. For his part, the humanist Beatus Rhenanus (1485 – 1547), the owner of five editions, revised and corrected in detail the text of a translation by Rudolf Agricola, proposing a number of amendments and changes that would appear in the Basel edition printed by Adam Petri in 1518.

Paulo Alexandre Lima
NOVA University of Lisbon (Portugal)
Language: English
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 14.1 (2020) 57-81
Keywords: Hesiod, myth of the races, ordinal numbers.
Abstract. To understand the meaning and function of the ordinal numbers in the myth of the races it is essential to have a full grasp of how the myth is composed and its structure is supposed to be perceived by a listener or reader. There is a general silence among Hesiod scholars about the meaning and function of the ordinal numbers in the myth. A tacit agreement may be inferred from such a silence: the ordinal numbers are implicitly taken to merely express the chronological order of the races. In this article, we examine each and every one of the ordinal numbers that appear in Hesiod’s myth. We demonstrate that the ordinal numbers preserve their hierarchical dimension even in the cases in which this appears to be less convincing.

Daniel Vázquez
Autonomous University of Barcelona (Spain)
Language: English
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 14.1 (2020) 82-103
Keywords: deuteros plous, Platonic causes, forms, nous.
Abstract. In this paper, I propose a new reading of Phaedo 99b6-d2. My main thesis is that in 99c6-9, Socrates does not refer to the teleological aitia but to the aitia that will be provided by a stronger ‘Atlas’ (99c4-5). This means that the passage offers no evidence that Socrates abandons teleology or modifies his views about it. He acknowledges, instead, that he could not find or learn any aitia stronger than the teleological one. This, I suggest, allows an interpretation of the Phaedo in which Socrates offers a consistent account of the aitia of generation and destruction.

Sergey Shevtsov
Odessa National University (Ukraine)
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 14.1 (2020) 104-141
Keywords: Iliad, oral poetry, neoanalysis, long similes, free will, philosophy of Homer, law, concept of responsibility.
Abstract. The objective of the article is to demonstrate the paradox of the spread of the Homeric epics: having been created by the descendants of the Achaeans in exile three or four centuries after the Trojan war, they became widespread among all of the Greek-speaking world, i.e. mostly among those who destroyed the Achaean civilization forcing the heroes' descendants into exile. The author poses a question: why do the Greek tribes, who have driven the Achaeans out and took their territory, accept a story of the Achaeans' great past as their own? To answer this, the article suggests a hypothesis that on a profound level the Iliad contains a philosophical idea of the world unity. This idea is not terminologically defined in the epics, however, it is presented as a philosophy-of-law concept of responsibility for one's own decision (free will). This answer is based on analysis of the long similes in Iliad and the instances of interrelation of gods and men and the decisions made by the former and the latter out of their free will.

Vitaly Ivanov
Saint Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 14.1 (2020) 143-163
Keywords: peripatetic physics in the 16th century, Benedict Perera SJ, question on scientific status of mathematics, character of the demonstratio mathematica, the certainty of mathematical knowledge.
Abstract. Traditionally, it is believed that one of the most important phenomena in the history of "new" science, i.e. the science of Early Modern times, is the emergence of mathematical natural science. However, in the 16th century the status of physics and mathematics within the framework of scientific knowledge was far from being so unambiguous. In this article, we consider and analyze the arguments of the late Peripatetic author of the late 16th century – the learned Jesuit Benedict Pereira – in favor of his thesis about "non-scientific character" of mathematical disciplines. These arguments focus not on the weaker (less perfect) status of the reality of the mathematical object, but on the nature of mathematical demonstration and mathematical knowledge as such. Pereira shows in detail that mathematics does not meet the criteria of scientific knowledge (in the sense of "Second Analytics"), because the middle terms in its demonstrations are non-proper, general and accidental, and mathematics itself is not a knowledge of the real causes. In sum, in Pereira's consideration mathematics turns out to be some sort of “operational art” rather than a necessary knowledge of the truth from real causes. A comparison of the scientific status of physical and mathematical knowledge in Pereira makes it possible to clarify the conditions for the emergence of modern mathematical physics.

Vitaly Ogleznev
Saint Petersburg State University
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 14.1 (2020) 164-172
Keywords: Aristotle, Plato, Hart, indeterminacy, vagueness, open texture, legal rule, legislation, definition
Abstract. The article presents Aristotle’s and H. L. A. Hart’s approaches to indeterminacy of law. It is shown that both Hart and Aristotle have associated indeterminacy with the general nature of law and legal rules, but they interpret this relationship in different ways, as well as in different ways they interpret the reasons of general nature of law and indeterminacy. If for Aristotle the general nature of law is the cause of indeterminacy, then for Hart it is a consequence. But both philosophers definitely agree that for a more effective legal regulation, a margin of indeterminacy in legal rules should nevertheless be tolerated.

Alexandra Solovyeva
St. Petersburg State University
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 14.1 (2020) 173-183
Keywords: Solon, family, genus, archaic era, Ancient Greece.
Abstract. Present day classical studies witness some sort of renaissance in the study of reformist activities and the personality of the Athenian politician Solon. Solon's laws on family and marriage are less studied, as are the ideas of the Athenian reformer about these social institutions. This is due to the lack of evidence on this issue and the complexity of the interpretation of these legal provisions, which was noted by the ancient authors themselves. The aim of this work is to review and analyze ancient evidence of the reforms of Solon, which affected property issues in the field of family and marriage.

Timothey Myakin
Novosibirsk State University
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 14.1 (2020) 184-206
Keywords: image of the Helen in Sapph. 16; the cult of Helen at Sappho; Helen at Alcaeus’s poetry.
Abstract. The image of the Helen in Sapph. Fr. 16 (Neri–Cinti) is analyzed in detail on the basis of the new papyrus fragments which were published by Dirk Obbink (Obbink, 2016a). According to the results of the comparative analysis, it is concluded that the form of the aoristic active participle from the verb περιέχειν, which is used in Sapph. Fr. 16, refers not only to the vocabulary of Homer, but also to the vocabulary of legal documents (cf.: Hom. Il. XV, 653–654; Hellanic., Fr. 31, 50 Jacoby; IG XII(2), №58, 8–9 etc.). Thus, we confirm a special significance of the Sapph. Fr. 16, which is a "program" song of Sappho’s thiasos (cf. Bierl, 2003).

Anna S. Stepanova
The Herzen State Pedagogical University, St. Petersburg
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 14.1 (2020) 207-214
Keywords: Komensky, Seneca, nature of the man, образование, pansophia.
Abstract. The article discusses the significance of the heritage of Seneca for the genesis of the philosophical and educational project of Jan Amos Komensky, which he called Pansophia. On the basis of terminological analysis and a comparative method, the main positions, terminological preferences and the meaning of Komensky’s creative development of the philosophical experience of this particular ancient author are revealed. In Komensky’s educational project, the ancient tradition introduced by Seneca is renewed in a new form - the humanistic ideal becomes the core of the didactic concept. Komensky’s project combined the theory and practice of human education, focused on a philosophical understanding of his nature.

Eugene Afonasin
Novosibirsk State University
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 14.1 (2020) 215-225
Keywords: weather prediction; practical astronomy in Antiquity; history of navigation.
Abstract. Wind as a natural phenomenon as well as the peculiarities of specific winds, such as Boreas, Notos, Eurus, and Zephyrus and their influences on navigation, agriculture and, in general, human live are among the subjects, extensively treated by the Peripatetics. Winds are studied in Aristotle’s Meteorology (1.13, 2.4 sq.), Book 26 of the Problems, the Peripatetic On signs and On the position and Names of the Wind, in an epitome of a meteorological work, ascribed to Theophrastus (the so-called Metarsiology, preserved only in Arabic and Syriac translations) and, finally, in his short (and incomplete) treatise On Winds. The latter work is of special interest not only because it is the only Peripatetic treatise especially dedicated to winds; as such it is a valuable witness of Theophrastus’ position on the nature of this natural phenomenon, generally different from the one advanced by Aristotle. Having summarized some aspects of this rather neglected treatise, I try to correlate meteorological information and explanations offered by Theophrastus with contemporary data, especially in the context of the history of navigation.

Andrey Radzyukevich
Novosibirsk State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering
Gennadi Grigorenko
Nikolaev, Ukraine
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 14.1 (2020) 226-245
Keywords: proportions of Roman Pantheon, laser scan, point cloud, logic of architectural design reconstruction, roman metrology reconstruction.
Abstract. The paper tests the methodology of architectural and ethnographic research of the object of material culture-a masterpiece of world architecture of the Roman Pantheon. The method involves performing the proportional-metrological analysis of the forms using the results of three-dimensional laser scanning. The sequence of actions allowing receiving extremely reliable dimensional drawings of necessary elements of an architectural monument is presented. The analysis suggests that the design metrological module of the Pantheon was a Roman foot of 0.445 m. A detailed analysis of the size of the rotunda plan made it possible to confirm the hypothesis that the design was based on the use of an integer analogue of the number "PI" - fraction 22/7. In addition, an integer right triangle 5: 12: 13 could be used to construct the right angle and to determine the basic proportions of the elements of the facade of the portico. Apparently, in the process of designing the forms of the Pantheon, the method of harmonizing elements on the basis of the similarity method with a change in their scale was used.

Marina Volf
Institute of Philosophy and Law SB RAS (Novosibirsk)
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 14.1 (2020) 246-256
Keywords: Plato, hypothetical method, cognition of the unknown, middle dialogs, dialogue "Parmenides".
Abstract. The article formulates a block of problems related to the understanding of the hypothetical method of Plato, first of all, its structure and direction of argumentation, whether the hypotheses are aimed at establishing their own truth or the truth of something else, whether the hypothetical method depends on the success of geometry or vice versa, whether mathematics uses the method proposed by philosophers. The main interpretations of the method are analyzed, the differences between them are shown, and the positions are reconstructed according to which consensus is established regarding the method. The hypothetical method was created for the specific task of knowing the unknown, which is also accompanied by some problem, as well as for cases where the unknown is searched on the basis of a hypothesis, which, in turn, is unprovable, unverifiable and not self-evident. It is concluded that discussions about the hypothetical method cannot be considered dead-end or exhausted, and if we intend to understand how ancient epistemology is evolving, we cannot get around the question of the hypothetical method.

Roman Svetlov
Fedor Korochkin
Herzen State Pedagogical University (Saint Petersburg)
spatha@mail.ru, fkorochkin@herzen.spb.ru
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 14.1 (2020) 257-266
Keywords: casuality, Hume, Plato, the Parmenides dialogue, antique skepticism, skepticism, empiricism, argument from Master and Slave.
Abstract. The authors attempt to expand the view of the well-known argument from Master and Slave through the prism of comparing the method of analysis of causality in Plato and Hume. We try to demonstrate a certain similarity of the logic of the proof adopted by two philosophers, as well as the research prospects that such a comparison opens up. In particular, it shows the grounds on which a skeptical tendency arises in the Academy.

Konstantin Sharov
M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 14.1 (2020) 267–277
Key words: the Apostle Paul, early Christian preaching, Corinth, Aphrodite Temple, Aphrodite cult, hetæras, sacral prostitution
Abstract. In the paper, several well-known passages from the Epistles of the Apostle Paul are studied that raise the women’s issue in Corinth and still cause many discrepancies and contradictory assessments from masculine bias and chauvinism in early Christian preaching to St Paul’s personal misogyny. The author shows that these places should be interpreted as a continuation of the Corinthian sermons of the Apostle, deliberately composed by Paul in the context of non-Christian Greco-Roman culture of Corinth revived by Julius Cæsar. At the heart of this Corinthian culture, there was the famous temple of Aphrodite, sacred prostitution and the exquisitely hedonistic hetæras society.

Vladimir A. Baranov
Novosibirsk State University of Architecture, Design and Arts
Language: English
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 14.1 (2020) 278-292
Keywords: John Grammaticus, naming, definition of substance, Aristotle, Leontius of Byzantium.
Abstract. This article analyzes two fragments by the last Iconoclastic Patriarch John Grammaticus (837–843). A number of parallels to the doctrine in the fragments have been identified, including Aristotle, Theodoret of Cyrrhus, Basil of Caesarea, and John Philoponus. It is proposed that the main source of the fragments was a passage from the Epilyseis or Solutions Proposed to the Arguments of Severus by Leontius of Byzantium.

Anna Afonasina
Novosibirsk State University
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 14.1 (2020) 293-308
Keywords: Empedocles, Aphrodite, Ancient Greek epic poetry, Homer, Hesiod, Herodotus, Near East goddesses, religious practice, archaeological data on Aphrodite.
Abstract. Empedocles uses two forces to describe the world process, the emergence and destruction of space - Love and Strife, which work in turn, and in due time, replace each other. It is obvious that love is responsible for unification and creation, and hostility for division and destruction. At first glance it seems quite natural that it is the power of unification that Empedocles calls Aphrodite. However, when you look closely at the fragments of the poem, the image of Aphrodite is not so unambiguous: she acts as a god-craftsman, that is, not just watches from afar as the roots of things are connected to each other, but mixes them with her own hands and is directly involved in the creation of living beings. We meet her involved in such activities as metal casting, pottery, and artwork. This naturally leads to the question from where did she get so many different functions? To answer this question, one should turn to literary sources about Aphrodite both before and after Empedocles’ life (in the context of Homer’s epos and Hesiod’s poem), consider the religious tradition of Cyprus and especially the East, neighboring Greece, from where, in the opinion of some scientists, the goddess could get into the Mediterranean cultural landscape (most important study here is the work by Nano Marinatos), to study archaeological data and findings related to Aphrodite. Taking into account Empedocles’ interest to bloodless sacrifices I will try to tie his views with the later orphic tradition. At the same time, in order to protect myself from losing the way in the forest of such huge massif it is necessary to restrict the area of this study. I will concentrate only on the activities of Aphrodite as she is presented in Empedocles.


Eugene Afonasin
Institute of philosophy and law SB RAS (Novosibirsk)
Novosibirsk State University
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 14.1 (2020) 309-338
Keywords: sophistic, doxography, sources of ancient philosophy.
Abstract. Protagoras of Abdera (c. 490–c. 420 BCE), a Greek philosopher, famous for his invention of sophistry as a profession. According to ancient testimonies he published some literary works, but nothing is preserved. The present publication contains a collection of scant doxographic evidence about Protagoras’ life and writings. The evidences are based on A. Lask and G. Most’ Early Greek Philosophy (2016).


Andrey Schetnikov
“New School” LLC (Novosibirsk, Russia)
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 14.1 (2020) 339-365
Keywords: Renaissance, non-linear perspective, vision, light.
Abstract. This paper discusses the system of the pictorial depth representation, typical for Giotto and other Italian artists of 14th century. Differing from the linear perspective, this system has a number of peculiar features, and its own consistent logic for the formation of pictorial space. The paper is especially focused on the contradictions of such a system, which lead to the appearance of impossible figures, and the ways in which the artists solved these difficulties.

ΣΧΟΛΗ, Vol. 14, Issue 1, complete text

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