ΣΧΟΛΗ
Ancient Philosophy
and the Classical Tradition

A Journal of the Centre for Ancient Philosophy
and the Classical Tradition

ISSN 1995-4328 (Print) ISSN 1995-4336 (Online)

ARTICLES

Yiorgo N. Maniatis
Hellenic Open University
maniatis1@windowslive.com
Language: English
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 15.2 (2021) 468-500
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2021-15-2-468-500
https://classics.nsu.ru/schole/15/15-2-maniatis.pdf
Keywords: Plato, Republic, ontology, epistemology, politics, φιλόσοφοι-βασιλεῖς.
Abstract. In the present work I examine the rational relationship that exists among the ontology, the epistemology, and the politics in Plato’s Republic, and to what degree these three theories support each other with rational foundations. In particular, this study examines to what degree the platonic ontology and epistemology support rationally and sufficiently the platonic political theory of the φιλόσοφοι-βασιλεῖς of the ἀρίστη πολιτεία in the Republic.

Miguel López-Astorga
University of Talca (Chile)
milopez@utalca.cl
Language: English
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 15.2 (2021) 501-512
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2021-15-2-501-512
https://classics.nsu.ru/schole/15/15-2-astorga.pdf
Keywords: Ancient logic; Chrysippus of Soli; cognition; conditional; selection task
Abstract. Wason’s selection task is a current cognitive problem. It is a reasoning task including a conditional sentence that only sometimes is correctly solved by participants. It has been claimed that the versions of the task that are often properly executed are only those in which the conditional sentence fulfills the criterion given by Chrysippus of Soli for the conditional. In this paper, this point is checked by considering a relevant number of versions of the aforementioned task in order to review whether or not their conditionals meet Chrysippus’ requirement.

Zbigniew Nerczuk
Nicolaus Copernicus University, Toruń (Poland)
zibbi@umk.pl
Language: English
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 15.2 (2021) 513-523
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2021-15-2-513-523
https://classics.nsu.ru/schole/15/15-2-nerczuk.pdf
Keywords: Greek Philosophy, Pre-socratic philosophy, the sophists, Plato, nature-culture controversy
Abstract. The paper discusses the debate on the human nature in the sophistic thought. Focusing on the "nature - culture" controversy it presents the evolution of the views of the Sophists: from Protagoras’ optimistic contention of the progress of mankind and his appraisal of culture to its criticism and the radical turn to nature in Antiphon, Hippias, Trasymachos, and Callicles. The paper aims at presenting the analysis of the ongoing discussion, with the stress laid on reconstruction of the arguments and concepts as well as the attitudes that are associated with various positions of this debate.

Lydia Spyridonova, Andrey Kurbanov
Russian Christian Academy for the Humanities (Russia)
lydia.spyridonova@gmail.com; andrey.kurbanov@gmail.com
Language: English
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 15.2 (2021) 524-537
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2021-15-2-524-537
https://classics.nsu.ru/schole/15/15-2-spiridonova.pdf
Keywords: John Tzetzes, Book epigram, Prometheus bound, A-commentary on Aeschylus.
Abstract: This article presents the Byzantine book of epigrams on Prometheus, found at the end of Prometheus Bound in a considerable part of Aeschylean manuscripts. It offers a critical edition, translation, analysis, commentary, and demonstrates John Tzetzes’ authorship. The detailed reading of the text aims at showing the presence of theatrical effects which characterise these poems, as well as illustrating the author’s poetic technique and interpreting his reproach to Aeschylus. By doing so we will touch upon broader issues, such as the interpretation of Prometheus from a Byzantine perspective and the authorship of the A-commentary on Aeschylus, the most popular among mediaeval students.

Juan Felipe Gonzalez-Calderon
Universidad Nacional de Colombia
jfgonzalezc@unal.edu.co
Language: English
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 15.2 (2021) 538-572
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2021-15-2-538-572
https://classics.nsu.ru/schole/15/15-2-gonzalez.pdf
Keywords: Constantine Lascaris, Aristotle, Ethics, philosophy as a way of life, written culture.
Abstract. This article aims to examine Constantine Lascaris’s work on Aristoteles’ ethical corpus. We consider evidence from the textual witnesses of the Nicomachean Ethics, the Eudemian Ethics, the Magna Moralia, and some other minor ethical writings, which belonged to Lascaris, in order to reconstruct his working methods. We also explore Lascaris’ own statements about virtuous life; a life devoted to the service of the common good, to philosophy and to the study of texts. For him philosophy was a way of life, rather than simply a discourse. We look at the link between written culture and philosophical life and propose further research into how Byzantine and Renaissance scholars understood their own intellectual activities to be a special kind of spiritual exercise intended to promote moral improvement in both individuals and societies.

Vladimir Baranov
Novosibirsk State University of Architecture, Design and Arts (Russia)
baranovv@academ.org
Language: English
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 15.2 (2021) 573-594
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2021-15-2-573-594
https://classics.nsu.ru/schole/15/15-2-baranov.pdf
Keywords: John of Damascus, Manichaeism, Aristotle, syllogistic proof, substance, contraries, Neoplatonic education.
Abstract: This article analyzes the philosophical arguments used by John of Damascus against the Manichaean dualist cosmological system in his Dialogue contra Manichaeos, showing some parallels with his Dialectica, and revealing a common Aristotelian background. The philosophical argument in the Dialogue seems to be a practical application of philosophical doctrines formulated in the Dialectica. From a wider perspective of anti-Manichean polemics used in part for instructional purposes for students of philosophy and theology in Late Antiquity, the conclusion is made that the purpose of the Dialogue was aimed not so much against the Manichaean cosmogony and cosmology, but against the Manichaean theodicy, which might have been attractive to some Christians of John’s times.

Kazimierz Pawłowski
Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski University (Warsaw, Poland)
kazimierzpawlowski2007@gmail.com
Language: English
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 15.2 (2021) 595-610
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2021-15-2-595-610
https://classics.nsu.ru/schole/15/15-2-pawlovski.pdf
Keywords: Plato, Socrates, the Phaedo, “swan song”, “secret doctrine”, initiations.
Abstract. In the Phaedo Plato describes Socrates’ final moments, just before his death. The statements he then makes can be treated as his philosophical creed. Socrates compares his own words to a swan song sung by the creature right before its approaching death and reminds his listeners of the swans’ prophetic gift. It can be said that in his final hour Socrates, just like Apollo’s swan, sings a song about the immortality of the human soul. Socrates refers to the Orphic “secret doctrine” (although he does not mention their name directly), revealing his thoughts on his own fate after death.

Maksim Prikhodko
Russian Christian Academy for the Humanities
prihodkomaxim@yandex.ru
Language: English
Issue ΣΧΟΛΗ 15.2 (2021) 611-624
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2021-15-2-611-624
https://classics.nsu.ru/schole/15/15-2-prikhodko.pdf
Keywords: Philo of Alexandria, laughter, language, logos, allegory, exegetics, Isaac, logos endiathetos, logos proforikos.
Abstract. The present paper investigates the interaction between Logos and language in the treatise of Philo of Alexandria "The Worse attacks the Better". Language is regarded by Philo as the actualization of thought in its articulated expression, as the initial moment of creativity. The source of such action is the divine Logos, but the development of thought in the word happens in two opposite directions: one leads to joy, while the other, to suffering. The starting point of this separation is the initial orientation (love) of the mind to God or to self. In the first case, the mind in the act of utterance (expression) overcomes its own isolation. It comes into contact with the divine Logos and achieves joy. The crucial moment of this "leaving the brackets" of self individual thinking towards the light of the divine Logos is laughter. In another case, when the mind does not link words with their source, false creativity is produced, leading to suffering. Аpplying the concept of laughter to the doctrine of Logos and language, Philo reconciles the ideal plan of conceiving truth and its interpretation with the real functioning of the human mind and speech.

Igor Tantlevskij
St. Petersburg State University (Russia)
tantigor@bk.ru
Language: English
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 15.2 (2021) 625-642
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2021-15-2-625-642
https://classics.nsu.ru/schole/15/15-2-tantl.pdf
Keywords: 11QMelchizedek (11Q13), 4QApocryphon of Daniel (4Q246), eschatology, soteriology, messianism, prophetism, the Qumran Community, the Teacher of Righteousness.
Abstract. The article analyses and juxtaposes the images of the eschatological soteriological figures of Melchizedek in 11QMelchizedek (11Q13) and the “Son of God” in 4QApocryphon of Daniel (4Q246). Identifying the differences in the soteriological concepts reflected in 11Q13 and 4Q246, the author reaches the following main conclusions. God the Creator is transcendent to creation; Melchizedek is predominantly the spiritual head of the entire universe (cf. also 4Q521, frag. 2, 2:1 of the “Messiah” of the Lord), who during the Eschaton will put an end to all the dark forces of creation led by Belial, atone for the sins of the worthy and retaliate against the sinful. As for the “Son of God” in 4Q246, his mission is mainly directed to earthly affairs, albeit on a global scale; he appears as a lay and military leader who comes at a critical moment to the aid of God’s people and is called to establish a just and righteous world order and in fact to become the sovereign of the united earthly kingdom. To a certain extent the image of “Son of God” in 4Q246 may be compared with the personality of the eschatological “messenger who announces peace (שלום)” (Isa. 52:7), i.e. establishes socio-political welfare on earth (cf., e.g., 4Q246, frag. 2, 2:5–6), and who is identified in 11Q13 2:16, 18 with the figure of the “anointed”/”prince” mentioned in Dan. 9:25 (the lay Messiah). Melchizedek, on the other hand, appears in 11Q13 as a divine figure on a universal, not just global, scale— one could even say like a second “God” within the created universe. As for the “messenger of good who announces salvation, saying to Zion: your God reigns” (Isa. 52:7), referred to in 11Q13 2:18–24, this is probably the Teacher of Righteousness of the Qumran community (the priestly Messiah).

Mikhail V. Egorochkin
RAS Institute of Philosophy (Moscow)
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 15.2 (2021) 643-667
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2021-15-2-643-667
https://classics.nsu.ru/schole/15/15-2-egorochkin.pdf
Keywords: ancient biography, Diogenes Laertius, Xenophanes, Pythagoreans, slavery in antiquity.
Abstract. According to Diogenes Laertius’ Lives of Eminent Philosophers, Xenophanes of Colophon, poet and philosopher of the 6th–5th centuries BC, was sold into slavery by the Pythagoreans Parmeniscus and Orestades (D.L. IX, 20 = 21 A 1 DK). This testimony has long been a source of concern to Hellenists, taking into account the high reputation that Pythagoras and his school gained in the history of European culture and philosophy. The paper provides a critical review of all the proposed corrections to the fragment in question. In the first part it considers conjectures and emendations made by the editors and translators Diogenes Laertius’ text since the Renaissance. Particular attention is paid to Ambrogio Traversari (1386–1439), the first translator of the Vitae philosophorum, whose translation already reveals a reluctance to follow the literal meaning of the testimony. The second part of the paper examines the restoration of the text proposed by Hermann Diels, which is still the most influential. The third part discusses the position of some modern scholars who, while refusing to correct the text of Diogenes Laertius, continue to suspect him to be mistaken. As a result, the paper shows that all corrections of Diogenes’ testimony, according to which Xenophanes was sold into slavery by the Pythagoreans, are vulnerable to criticism, and that consequently its literal reading may be correct.

Sergey Kocherov
National Research University «Higher school of Economics» (Nizhny Novgorod)
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 15.2 (2021) 668-680
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2021-15-2-668-680
https://classics.nsu.ru/schole/15/15-2-kocherov.pdf
Keywords: Heraclitus’ logos, knowledge of the one and universal, mental-verbal projection of being, cognition as self-exploration, role of a sage in a state.
Abstract. The paper attempts to clarify the essence of logos as found in the teaching of Heraclitus. The author identifies meanings which Heraclitus attributes to the concept, investigates his suggested method of cognizing logos, and analyzes the benefits bestowed upon a human being by comprehension of logos. It is hypothesized that the Heraclitean logos is not an originating principle, like a supreme god or cosmic fire, but its attribute – the verbalized intelligence of being inherent both in the world as a whole and one’s soul. As a mental-verbal projection, logos is open not to the sensory organs or even reason, but to the intellectual intuition. Therefore, the knowledge of logos cannot be taught, but can be obtained through self-cognition. Comprehension of logos leads to following the universal, which, in polity’s life, is equal to the common good. However, according to Heraclitus, this is something attainable only by wise and virtuous, “the best”, not by wicked and ignorant majority.

Nikola D. Lečić
National Research University Higher School of Economics (Moscow, Russia)
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 15.2 (2021) 681-701
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2021-15-2-681-701
https://classics.nsu.ru/schole/15/15-2-lechich.pdf
Keywords: Philolaus, Eurytus, Early Pythagoreans, limit, the one, number, harmonics, abstract.
Abstract. In this article we analyse the teaching of one of the last Early Pythagoreans, Eurytus of Tarentum – which is known to us through his performance of «defining» a thing with the number of pebbles needed to draw its silhouette — by comparing it with the philosophy of his teacher, Philolaus of Croton. We strive to find signs of Philolaus' ideas in Eurytus' practice. Our quest focuses on Philolaus' teaching on first principles, harmony, generation of cosmos, knowability, number and musical intervals. Our principal goal is a separation of these fifth-century concepts from misrepresentations which arose due to intense practice of retelling and reinterpretation of Early Pythagorean thought during the following centuries; specifically, we emphasise the impossibility of an abstract notion of number in Early Pythagoreanism. We conclude that the structure of Eurytus' demonstrations correctly expresses all fundamental aspects of Philolaus' philosophy and thus gives us a trustworthy representation of genuine Early Pythagorean thought.

Evgenij Derzhivitskij
St. Petersburg State University, derzhiv@mail.ru
Vadim Perov
St. Petersburg State University, vadimperov@gmail.com
Andrey Polozhentsev
St. Petersburg State University, polozhenzev@icloud.com
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 15.2 (2021) 702-715
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2021-15-2-702-715
https://classics.nsu.ru/schole/15/15-2-derzhiv.pdf
Keywords: populism, demagoguery, civic virtues, state ideology, Roman Republic, Cicero.
Abstract. The article is devoted to the study of the emergence and development of populism in the political struggle of the late Roman Republic. It focuses on the purely Roman nature of this phenomenon, which distinguishes it from ancient Greek demagogy, and highlights the basic principles and goals to which populist politicians appealed. The authors show that in its original meaning populism was a way of ensuring the participation of the people in politics. Despite all the ambiguity of this phenomenon, a conclusion is made about the objective regularity of the emergence of populism and about its high significance in the conditions of the social, economic and political transformation of the late Roman Republic. In addition, populism can be viewed as a marker of the existence of democratic politics, which presupposes the presence of civic virtues, both among citizens and among politicians, as well as the active participation of the people in political life.

Vitaly Ivanov
Saint Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation
ivavit@gmail.com
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 15.2 (2021) 716-744
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2021-15-2-716-744
https://classics.nsu.ru/schole/15/15-2-ivanov.pdf
Keywords: the Jesuit scholasticism, metaphysics, Izquierdo, objective act, status of things, objective truth.
Abstract. This article is a study of a new type of metaphysics that arose within the tradition of scholastic philosophy and theology of the Jesuits by the middle of the 17th century. The article describes the opposition of the traditional and new understanding of scholastic metaphysics on the example of Fr. Suárez and S. Izquierdo. The formation of the ontological concept of "status of things" is identified as one of the key conditions and signs of this transformation of metaphysics. First, the formation of this concept is explored in the scholastic tradition preceding Izquierdo, namely in Fonseca, Suárez, Hurtado de Mendoza and Fabri, as a history of shifts in meaning and of the emergence of new contexts in which the term "status" was used. Second, we describe the systematic context of the doctrine of the status rerum in the universal theory of objects of human thought in Izquierdo's Pharus scientiarum (1659). Thirdly, we explicate the very concept of the status of a thing in the first philosophy of Izquierdo, its necessary connection with the concept of the objective truth of a thing, and also show the special significance of the first "quidditative status of things" as a whole set of objective truths underlying all demonstrative human sciences. Finally, the article points out that one of the essential features of Izquierdo's new metaphysics is the strengthening of the methodological nature of the universal science recorded in his treatise in comparison with the traditional Jesuit prototype in Suárez.

Ilya G. Guryanov
Poletayev Institute for Theoretical and Historical Studies in the Humanities, National Research University Higher School of Economics
ilgur@yandex.ru
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 15.2 (2021) 745-771
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2021-15-2-745-771
https://classics.nsu.ru/schole/15/15-2-guryanov.pdf
Key words: Renaissance medicine, philosophy of nature, Ficino, plague.
Abstract. Most of the studies on the history of medicine, pay special attention to how the plague epidemics in 14th–16th centuries had changed the medical theory and practice. In the medical discourse, those epidemics helped to shape the “epistemology of particulars (particularia)” which contrast with the scholastic epistemology dealing with the search of universal causes. Marsilio Ficino, one of the most influential natural philosophers of the Renaissance, combines scholastic medicine and philosophy of ancient authors in order to develop his theory of epidemics in the treatises Consilio contra la pestilentia and De vita. He identifies the external and internal causes of plague and describes ways to combat the disease. The external cause is the constellations of planets which cause putrid exhalation in certain territories that is an example of conventional scholastic epistemology dealing with mass diseases. The internal cause is identified with the inability of the body to resist the disease “from within”. The main focus of my paper is the argument that, according to Ficino, philosophers have a special ability to resist disease “from within”. The figure of Socrates and his ability to withstand the Plague of Athens allows Ficino to formulate a new take on epidemics which falls within the scope of “epistemology of particulars”. From the historical point of view, the novelty of my approach comes from the fact that I trace the source of Ficino’s knowledge about Socrates’ disease resistance ability to Noct. Att. 2.1. of Aulus Gellius. Ficino’s natural philosophy suggests that a philosopher from their very birth is “by nature” predisposed to philosophical contemplation, therefore the realization of their vital destination through multiple sympathetic connections affects all levels of the universe. Ficino’s doctrine has a social and political dimension since a philosopher (i.e. a platonist), attracting positive astral influences, levels the effect of negative “heavenly” causes of mass diseases and thus benefits all people around him. Thus, the practice of philosophy (i.e. Platonism in Ficino’s interpretation) during epidemics is not simply a form of leisure time or private activity for a philosopher but a form of concern for public health. The paper also offers a commented Russian translation of chapters 1–2, with the Proem, of Ficino’s treatise Consilio contra la pestilentia.

Ilya Kolesnikov
Saratov State Law Academy
kolesnikovid@mail.ru
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 15.2 (2021) 772-788
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2021-15-2-772-788
https://classics.nsu.ru/schole/15/15-2-kolesnikov.pdf
Keywords: ancient classicism, atticism, asianism, neoterics, Alexandrian philology, canon, Renaissance.
Abstract. The article discusses the genesis of classicism in the Antiquity. At first, we give a brief retrospective review of the concept of “classic” until to the Renaissance, then the emergence on this concept in Aulus Gellius and Cicero. Further, we present a retrospective history of the classical tendency on the example of the disputes between Asians and Atticists, neoterics and lovers of old poetry, and in the ancient attitude towards the plastic arts. Hereafter the article focuses on the Hellenistic poets and philologists and, finally, we trace the origin of the classical tendency in the classical age – particularly, the creation of lists of «selected writers», the development of artistic canons and the relationship between classicism in arts and the pursuit of the old and «good» mores.

Oleg N. Nogovitsin
Sociological institute, Federal Center of Theoretical and Applied Sociology, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg
onogov@yandex.ru
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 15.2 (2021) 789-813
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2021-15-2-789-813
https://classics.nsu.ru/schole/15/15-2-nogovitsin.pdf
Keywords: cosmology, physics, exegesis, John Philoponus, Leontius of Byzantium, Christology, analogy, paradigm, symbolism of the sun.
Abstract. This article analyzes the use of scientific theories in the exegesis of the Book of Genesis and in Christological dispute between Diophysites and Monophysites in the first half of the sixth century, focusing on the conditions under which traditional methods of rhetorical argumentation could be applied and on using scientific models for explaining the phenomena of the created nature in order to clarify the aporias from the Book of Genesis and Incarnation. The argument using παράδειγμα (example) and ἀναλογία (analogy), which belonged to the repertory of methods from the Neoplatonic scholarly tradition, made it possible to discuss such heterogeneous phenomena as created and non-created as well as divine and human in theological texts by providing the rules for correct descriptions and for verifying their theological and philosophical accuracy. These two methods are analyzed against the background of Neoplatonic commentaries of Aristotle, while their application to theology is viewed through polemical argument in John Philoponus and Leontius of Byzantium. The Monophysite Philoponus used the argument from ἀναλογία to defend the Christological formula of one composite nature of Christ, while the Chalcedonian Leontius of Byzantium employed the method of argumentation from παράδειγμα for defending the presence of two natures in Christ.

Anton Didikin
National Research University Higher School of Economics (Moscow)
abdidikin@bk.ru
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 15.2 (2021) 814-824
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2021-15-2-814-824
https://classics.nsu.ru/schole/15/15-2-didikin.pdf
Key words: ethics, moral imperatives, moral prescriptions, moral language, virtue, good, natural law, Aristotle, R. Hare.
Abstract. The paper interprets the arguments of Aristotle, which characterize his ethical theory and had a significant impact on the moral theory of R. Hare. The author reveals the conceptual foundations of R. Hare's understanding of the nature of moral prescriptions and the ways of their expression in the moral language, and the controversial issues of his interpretation of the content of moral principles and other ethical concepts. The author comes to the conclusion that R. Hare's reinterpretation of the grounds for committing ethically significant actions leads him to formulate moral imperatives in the context of the method of linguistic analysis, which brings ethical theory to the meta-level.

Valerij Gouschin
National Research University Higher School of Economics (Perm, Russia)
valerii2012@yandex.ru
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 15.2 (2021) 825-843
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2021-15-2-825-843
https://classics.nsu.ru/schole/15/15-2-gushin.pdf
Keywords: Greek Mythology, Lemnian deeds, pelasgians, Herodotus, Apollonius of Rhodes.
Abstract. "Lemnian Deeds" is a well-known literary and mythological topic. It includes two events: 1) the murder of the husbands and all the men of the island by the Lemnian women; 2) the killing of the Athenian women and their children by the Pelasgians. Researchers have long noticed the affinity of these events. Some scholars believe that the narration of the crime of the Pelasgians was created according to its Lemnian prototype. Or, to put in other way, one of the events became a kind of copy for the other. This paper provides a different interpretation to the noted similarity.

Denis A. Fedorov
Herzen State Pedagogical University (Saint Petersburg, Russia)
piarman@gmail.com
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 15.2 (2021) 844-855
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2021-15-2-844-855
https://classics.nsu.ru/schole/15/15-2-fedorov.pdf
Keywords: Cicero, Carneades, De Re Publica, skepticism, justice.
Abstract. The article is devoted to the problem of reflection in the texts of Cicero of evidence of the propaganda and educational activities of the "philosophical embassy" in Rome under the leadership Carneades as the head of the new Academy, and the content of his philosophical speeches before the Roman audience. Particular attention is paid to the problem of Cicero's interpretation of the text of the famous speech of Carneades "Against Justice" that has not come down to us, which is reflected in the partially preserved third book of the treatise De Re Publica. According to the author of the article, Cicero, trying to popularize the methodological principle of philosophizing characteristic of skeptics, updated and modernized the theses of Carneades in relation to the realities of his era and his own pragmatic goals in the specific socio-political conditions of the crisis of the late Roman Republic.

Roman Svetlov
Herzen State Pedagogical University (Saint Petersburg, Russia)
spatha@mail.ru
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 15.2 (2021) 856-867
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2021-15-2-856-867
https://classics.nsu.ru/schole/15/15-2-svetlov.pdf
Keywords: Plato's theology, ancient philosophical anthropology, dramatic approach to the study of Plato's texts.
Abstract. The so-called «dramatic approach» to the interpretation of Plato's texts provides us with some additional tools to explore his theological concepts. The article examines possible ways to connect with each other two "theologies" that are found in Plato's dialogues: static theology from the intelligible universe, and dynamic theology from the visible universe, which is in constant genesis. From the point of view of the «dramatic» approach, we must constantly keep in mind the various assessments of the problems posed by Plato's Socrates and other characters in the dialogues in order to have a complete picture of the analyzed matter. To reconcile these two "theologies", the description of the ambivalent nature of the human soul in «Lysis» plays a basic role, which is also confirmed in other Platonic texts.

Daniil Dorofeev
Saint-Petersburg Mining University
dorofeev61@mail.ru
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 15.2 (2021) 868-893
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2021-15-2-868-893
https://classics.nsu.ru/schole/15/15-2-dorofeev.pdf
Keywords: St. Petersburg, Antiquity, education, forming, iconography, ancient philosophers, visual plastic images, the Age of Enlightenment.
Abstract: The article is devoted to the study of philosophical significance of visual and plastic iconography of ancient philosophers as a special way of education and formation of human image, landscape of the city and culture as a whole. The author seeks to identify and analyze as much as possible the presence of such images in St. Petersburg, primarily in the form of sculptural statues and busts in palaces and parks. For this purpose the article examines what role antique plastic art played in the systems of education and aesthetics of everyday life of in the 18th and 19th centuries men, how and by whom it was perceived, disseminated and propagandized. Particular attention is paid to the history and philosophy of garden art from Ancient Greece to the Enlightenment, since this is where the educational function of the iconography of ancient philosophers (for example, in the Summer Garden and Pavlovsky Park) is expressively revealed. The article uses extensive material to illustrate the peculiarities of ancient art collections and the originality of images of ancient philosophers in European and Russian culture of the 18th–19th centuries.

Daniil Shulga
Siberian Institute of Management – the branch of Russian Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (Novosibirsk, Russia)
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 15.2 (2021) 894-910
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2021-15-2-894-910
https://classics.nsu.ru/schole/15/15-2-shulga.pdf
Keywords: China, Tang dynasty, archeology, Bactria, Parthia, Silk Road, Eastern Hellenism, Northern and Southern dynasties, Sui dynasty, Dionysus.
Abstract. The topic of Chinese material culture is quite rare in modern classical studies. However, even the analysis of a few artifacts found in the territory of China allows us to enrich significantly our understanding of the occurrence of Hellenic mythological motifs outside their "traditional area" (both geographical and chronological). On the territory of the Greco-Roman Mediterranean, already in the first centuries of our era there is a gradual strengthening of new religious-philosophical doctrines, but on the Great Silk Road we can state a kind of "conservation" of mythological images dating back to the archaic period of Greece (or even to the Mycenaean era). We are not talking about unfounded interpretations, but about artifacts with many details characteristic of the Greco-Romanic world. Such images are little known in Russian-speaking scholarship, therefore it is relevant for the study of Greco-Asian syncretism to make them available for classicsts.

Oleg Bazaluk
Guangdong University of Petrochemical Technology (China)
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 15.2 (2021) 911-925
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2021-15-2-911-925
https://classics.nsu.ru/schole/15/15-2-bazaluk.pdf
Keywords: Plato, philosophical tradition, education, scholarch, Sophia.
Abstract. The article reveals the genesis of the philosophical tradition in education. The emphasis was placed on the study of the Plato’s work. In “The Republic” Plato wrote, “…when you meet encomiasts of Homer who tell us that this poet has been the educator (πεπαίδευκεν) of Hellas, and that for the conduct and refinement of human life he is worthy of our study and devotion, and that we should order our entire lives by the guidance of this poet we must love and salute them” (Plato, Republic 10.606e). The author took Plato’s instructions literally, emphasizing the importance of Plato in the creation of the philosophical tradition.

Irina Protopopova
Russian State University for the Humanities (Moscow)
plotinus70@gmail.com
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 15.2 (2021) 926-934
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2021-15-2-926-934
https://classics.nsu.ru/schole/15/15-2-protop.pdf
Keywords: Plato, Eros, desire, transcendent, “in itself”, “in relation to the other”.
Abstract. The article deals with a splitting undergone by Plato’s Eros and desire, into opposite, deviant poles represented, respectively, by philosopher and tyrant. The author shows how different types of deviation are formed depending on the understanding of the desire and the good, and the fixation on the ways to achieve them. This is due to identification and deidentification in relation to various images of self, but also with the “transcending”, which in turn is related to two main principles of the existence of things, “in itself” (τὰ αὐτὰ μὲν καθ' αὑτά) and “in relation to the other” (τὰ δὲ πρὸς ἄλλα). Socrates, realizing the “unsubstantiality” of self (οὐδὲν ὤν, Smp. 219a2), liberates himself and helps others to get rid of false ideas about themselves and go out into what is “transcendent”, “in itself”. The tyrant, on the contrary, always identifies with his want and the way to overcome it, and is increasingly immersed in the infinitely “other”, finding himself, as a result, in the “beyond the realm of false pleasures” (R. 587c). In the images of two divergent “erotic manias”, Plato implements a complex and ambiguous dialectic of "Same" and "Other".

Valery V. Petroff
RAS Institute of Philosophy (Moscow, Russia)
campas.iph@gmail.com
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 15.2 (2021) 935-965
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2021-15-2-935-965
https://classics.nsu.ru/schole/15/15-2-petrov.pdf
Keywords: ancient music, harmonics, paideia, Neopythagoreanism, Neoplatonism, Aristides Quintilianus, Plato, Porphyry, Iamblichus, Proclus, ps.-Plutarch, Athenaeus, Nicomachus of Gerasa.
Abstract: The study aims to clarify the meaning of the philosophical views of Aristides Quintilianus, presented in his treatise “On Music”: concepts from the field of ontology, epistemology, psychology, anthropology, ethics are discussed in the context of theories developed by his contemporaries. Aristides’ arguments concerning the benefits of arts and sciences (and, accordingly, music) are discussed. It is pointed out that the “accuracy” that Aristides repeatedly speaks about in relation to music means that he prefers to consider music rather as science than art. The definitions of music proposed by Aristides are under consideration, their sources and philosophical content are analyzed. The Neo-Pythagorean and Neo-Platonic context of the ideas of Aristides is explored. Parallels are given from the works of Plato, Porphyry, Iamblichus, Proclus, ps.-Plutarch, Athenaeus, Nicomachus of Gerasa. The views of Aristides on the nature of the cosmos and the soul are discussed, including his doctrine of the descent of the individual soul through the planetary spheres. With regard to “bodily” music, Aristides’ ideas about the correspondence between a soul and its type of melos, as well as about masculine and feminine in music, are analyzed.

Pavel Butakov
Institute of Philosophy and Law SB RAS
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 15.2 (2021) 966-977
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2021-15-2-966-977
https://classics.nsu.ru/schole/15/15-2-butakov.pdf
Keywords: divine hiddenness, Schellenberg, divine love, ancient theology, collective subject.
Abstract. The atheistic Hiddenness Argument contains a controversial premise that a perfectly loving God would love every single person. J. L. Schellenberg, the author of the Argument, claims that this premise is necessarily true. However, many ancient theologians would disagree with the truth of this premise. In this paper, I provide evidence of the variety of alternative theological views from antiquity concerning the proper object of perfect divine love. The list of alternatives includes 1) the whole humanity as a collective subject, 2) humanity as a universal, 3) divine image reflected in human beings, 4) the community of the faithful, 5) a chosen people. Based on the disagreement between Schellenberg and the ancient theologians concerning the proper object of perfect divine love, I argue that the aforementioned premise of the hiddenness argument, even if true, is not necessarily true. Therefore, the key premise of the hiddenness argument turns out to be without support, and the Argument turns out to be unsound.

Dmitri Panchenko
Saint Petersburg State University; Higher School of Economics (Saint Petersburg)
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 15.2 (2021) 978-1010
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2021-15-2-978-1010
https://classics.nsu.ru/schole/15/15-2-panchenko.pdf
Keywords: Meton, Thucydides, Aristarchus of Samos, Eudoxus of Cnidus, Greek astronomy, calendar, classical Athens, Peloponnesian War.
Abstract. The date assigned to Meton’s highly reputed observation of the summer solstice in the Almagest implies June 27, 432 BC. Since the solstice took actually place a day later, such an inaccuracy presents a puzzle. It can be demonstrated, however, that Meton’s observation was in fact accurate, for he made it on June 28, 433 BC. This follows from adequate interpretation of chronological indications in Thucydides and finds support in various data of the ancient sources. The mistaken date arose, and was maintained, because of the misleading assumption according to which the Athenian archon year invariably began after the summer solstice. It was wrongly decided that Meton had observed the summer solstice at the end of the year of the archon Apseudes and not at its initial part. The true date of Meton’s solstice presents in new light the observation of the summer solstice by Aristarchus of Samos, Eudoxus’ preoccupation with the octaeteris and early Greek astronomy in general. The beginning of the Peloponnesian War is now firmly established at early April (almost certainly, April 6), 431 BC.

TRANSLATIONS

Nadezhda Volkova
Institute of Philosophy and Law SB RAS (Novosibirsk, Russia)
go2nadya@gmail.com
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 15.2 (2021) 1011-1033
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2021-15-2-1011-1033
https://classics.nsu.ru/schole/15/15-2-volkova.pdf
Keywords: Protagoras, Plato, Aristotle, Plutarch, Diogenes Laertius, sophists, sophistry.
Abstract. The article is devoted to a major change of meaning of the word "sophist" (σοφιστής) in the testimonies of ancient authors. Initially term “sophist” was applied to various groups of people - poets, rhapsodes, sages and legislators were called sophists, it was synonymous with the word "sage" (σοφός). But in the middle of the 5th century it was used to refer only to the teachers of virtue and rhetoric, which appeared in Greece and began to call themselves sophists following Protagoras. Most or all of the fifth-century sophists tend to require a fee, to travel from city to city, to educate young people, promising to teach virtue and rhetoric. The influence of Plato in determination and evaluation of the sophists played a decisive role. In his dialogues, Plato calls Protagoras, Gorgias, Hippias and others as sophists. Besides that, Plato gave the word σοφιστής all well-known negative connotations, among them a liar and a charlatan. Negative assessments of the activities of the sophists persisted until the middle of the 19th century, until the English historian of Antiquity George Grote began a long process of their rehabilitation.

Eugene Afonasin
Institute of Philosophy and Law SB RAS
afonasin@post.nsu.ru
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 15.2 (2021) 1034-1049
DOI: 10.25205/1995-4328-2021-15-2-1034-1049
https://classics.nsu.ru/schole/15/15-2-afonasin.pdf
Keywords: Neoplatonism, Late Antiquity, Hierocles, Hermias, Ammonius, sources of ancient philosophy.
Abstract. In the paper, I trace the evolution of the Neoplatonic school in Alexandria on the basis of select fragments from Damascius’ “Philosophical History,” translated into Russian for the first time. The fragments concern the Alexandrian intellectual scene of the first part of the fifth century. Damascius vividly presents the major philosophical figures of this period, such as Hierocles, Hermeias and his son Ammonius as well as such peculiar personalities as the philosophers Theosebius and Hierax, the sophists Ammonianus and Theo, and, last not least, Aedesia, wife of Hermeias. The fragments translated range from 46 to 57 Athanassiadi.

ΣΧΟΛΗ, Vol. 15, Issue 2, complete text

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