Jesuit University Ignatianum in Krakow
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 16.1 (2022) 7–33
Keywords: ontology, epistemology, existence, truth, Greek philosophy, Charles H. Kahn.
Abstract. This article proposes a revision of the traditional interpretation of ancient Greek ontology and indicates what consequences this revision may have for political reflection. The basis for the interpretation laid out here lies in classicist Charles H. Kahn’s work on the meaning and function of the verb “to be” (einai) in ancient Greek. Kahn asserts that the original and fundamental meaning of einai was veritative (veridical) rather than existential – it was used to signify truth, not existence. Though the significance of Kahn’s research has been widely acknowledged, the influence of his analyses on interpretations of Greek ontology seems disproportionately small in comparison. The veritative interpretation remains on the margin of studies dominated by the existential interpretation. My article is meant as a contribution to the project of building a veritative interpretation of Greek ontology. I intend to show, using certain examples, the forms of this interpretation and possibilities it presents. For scholars of ancient Greek philosophy, it is often difficult to distinguish between its ontological and epistemological aspects. As I will try to show, this state of affairs results from a post factum imposition of the existential interpretation on Greek thought. The problem is greatly reduced when we use the veritative paradigm in place of the existential paradigm. It also becomes easier to grasp the unity of Greek philosophy, especially the unity of ontology and epistemology. A veritative interpretation of Greek ontology carries with it important consequences for our understanding of Greek political philosophy as well. One of the key consequences is a “formal” (as opposed to “material”) understanding of concepts fundamental to Greek political reflection, such as the “good” and “justice.” As a result, discussion on ancient Greek political and legal reflection can be conducted from a fruitful new perspective.
University of Patras, Greece
Hellenic Open University, Greece
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 16.1 (2022) 34-53
Keywords: Proclus, intermediates, remaining, procession, reversion.
Abstract. In this article we present the general principles of Proclus’ ontological system, a topic that is also interesting for how spiritual activities are formed during the fifth century A.C. Specifically, we elaborate one of Proclus’ greatest theories, the theory on the intermediate realities as well as the main methodology in which he investigates these intermediates, which refers to the triadic schema “remaining-procession-reversion”. Although there is no distinction between theory and the methodology in which it is investigated, since they are in a mutual relationship and are almost identified, we make a distinction between them to understand the Proclean system. So, both the sections of our article have a general theoretical and particularly methodological orientation. The most important aspect that we attempt to show is how through the geometrically structured pyramidal openness of the first Principle these intermediate realities, which exclude the direct communication of the absolute unity of the One-Good with the infinite variation of the natural world, are formed.
Tbilisi State University
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 16.1 (2022) 54-87
Key words: Medea, Argonauts, Etruscan Art, Cavatha.
Abstract. It could be said with some precision, that in Antiquity the myth of the Argonauts and especially of Medea herself as a personage of this myth, has enjoyed popularity not only in Greece but also outside its territories. The first among the Italic tribes to be introduced to the personage of Medea no doubt were the Etruscans, who were the first to establish intensive contacts with the Greeks from Euboea founding a colony in Cumae, Italy. It is noteworthy that the first image of Medea in the World Art is seen on Etruscan ceramics. The paper gives detailed analyses of Etruscan olpe and other artefacts on which Medea early appears, providing a solid precondition for substantive conclusions. Some new versions of an interpretation expressed in relation to each of the artefacts on the basis of critical analysis of Etruscan archeological material, of classical texts and of previously undertaken modern research, are provided. Images of Medea in Etruscan art confirmed from the Orientalist era to the Hellenization period represent an original, local interpretation of Medea's image. Medea's magical art turned out to be familiar to the Etruscans, who were well known all throughout the Mediterranean for divination and being experts of magic. In contrast to the Greeks, they turned Medea into an object of cult worship, identifying her with the Etruscan sun god Cavatha.
University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn (Poland)
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 16.1 (2022) 88-99
Keywords: History of Tyre, Phoenician Colonisation, Carthage, Ancient Historiography, Chronology of the founding of Qarthadasht.
Abstract. The author of the article tries to connect the observation of economic and trade relations developed by the Phoenicians in the western part of the Mediterranean with a reflection on the situation in which the Levant countries found themselves. It is known that in the period in which the founding of Carthage can be hypothetically located, the Phoenician centers were under political, economic and military pressure – mainly from Assyria – although other powers, such as Damascus, cannot be ruled out. On the other hand, however, it is known that, for example, in German science the lack of a founding act of Carthage in North Africa was emphasized, and the archaeological traces left in this territory seem insufficient to reconcile conventional literary relations with the founding of Carthage at the end of the 9th century BC. The intention of this article is an attempt to show the issues on the basis of which one should consider the reinterpretation of the events reported as the context of the founding of Carthage. This procedure would serve to revise the existing findings of science on the chronology of the founding of Qarthadasht and could, consequently, contribute to showing that the founding of Carthage fell on a later period - i.e. the end of the 8th or the beginning of the 7th century BCE.
Institute of Philosophy and Law SB RAS (Novosibirsk, Russia)
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 16.1 (2022) 100-112
Keywords: individualism, collectivism, Aristotle, early Stoics, Epicurus, Cyrenaic, Cynics, Polis, Hellenistic monarchies
Abstract. It has been found that despite the spread of individualism in the philosophical teachings of early Hellenism, the collectivist component not only did not disappear, but also retained a strong position. Most philosophical teachings were characterized by the coexistence of both tendencies. This is clearly visible in Epicurus, the early Stoics, Anniceris, the Peripatetics and the Academicians. It has also been found that this feature of Greek philosophy was closely connected with the socio-historical development of Greece during the period of early Hellenism. The crisis of the polis system and the formation of Hellenistic monarchies contributed to the strengthening of individualism. The persistence of the tendency toward collectivism was a consequence of the viability of the polis system and the foundation of numerous Greek polities in Hellenistic monarchies.
The Russian Christian Academy for the Humanities (St. Petersburg)
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 16.1 (2022) 113-138
Keywords: Rational theology, Critias, Euripides, Sophistic movement, arête.
Abstract. Sextus Empiricus (Adv. Math. IX. 54. = B 25 DK) has preserved a fragment of a work attributed to the sophist and tyrant Critias. This fragment has long been considered a manifesto not only of atheism but also, perhaps, the first text in which religion is a purely political matter and the work of men's hands. Nevertheless, this text is still very problematic, because, taking into account the evidence of the primary sources, there is no real reason to believe that a) its author is precisely Critias who lead the Thirty Tyrants, b) that this is the fragment of the play "Sisyphus", c) that the "Sisyphus" is a satyr-play, d) that its author is not Euripides, and e) that it is indeed the manifesto of atheism and not a rational theological system that is completely loyal to everyday religious beliefs, which, without belittling religion, on the contrary, postulates its permanent benefit for any society. Whoever the author of this hypothetical "Sisyphus" might have been, he acted as a true sophist and rhetorician - by influencing one of the most important existential human experiences - the feeling of fear. And he had done it using logos and persuasion. The philosophical and moral issues of the fragment in question are entirely within the scope of intellectual debate in the second half of the fifth century BC. And one of the most important topics is the possibility of committing a secret crime that would not be detected not only by the law of the city of Athens but also by the gods.
Institute for Strategy of Education Development of the Russian Academy of Education;
Institute of Education of Higher School of Economics (Moscow)
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 16.1 (2022) 139-151
Keywords: history of philosophy, history of medicine, city space, disease, Aeschylus, Euripides, Sophocles, Ajax, Orestes, Philoctetes.
Abstract. The spread of healing cults and practices of the 5th century. BC. inspired tragedians to search for new forms of depicting heroes suffering from physical or mental illnesses. The understanding of illness in tragedies contrasted with their rational understanding, affirmed the divine origin of painful suffering and the possibility of learning through them. In Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides, heroes suffering from diseases are often in the role of students, and those around them are in the role of mentors, helping to cope with the disease or just observing its course. The article discusses different strategies for teaching heroes through mental or physical illness, presented in the tragedies "Orestes", "Ajax" and "Philoctetus". The pedagogical dimension of the formula "resentment - illness - death / threat of death" is considered as explaining the peculiarities of the dramatic representation of the city as a space of (un)health.
St. Petersburg State University (Russia)
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 16.1 (2022) 152-171
Keywords: Qumran manuscripts, Judaean theological and philosophical “schools”, Essenes, predestination, dualism, Rule of the Qumran community.
Abstract. In the first part of the article the author tries to reconstruct the peculiarities of organizational-administrative basis and content of the educational process in Qumran, and to analyze the impact of the success in learning and intellectual development of community members on their position in the congregation, but, most importantly, on the state of their soul, its disposition in the global war of good with evil and, ultimately, on its receiving retribution in the otherworld. In the second part of the article the author makes an attempt to identify some features of the theological-philosophical “school” formed in Qumran and to summarise key aspects of the theological and philosophical doctrines of Qumran, primarily based on the “Treatise on the Two Spirits” (1QS 3:13–4:26): 1) Concept of the Creation of the universe through an intermediary “link” – “Knowledge” (dʽt) according to the “Design” (mḥšbh/mḥšbt) of God; the Qumran concept of mḥšbh/mḥšbt, probably implying the “Plan”/“Scheme”/“Project” of the universe, can be correlated with Plato’s concept of παράδειγμα. 2) Concept of predestination in correlation with the Essene doctrine of predestination in the context of the formation of Judaean “philosophical schools”. 3) Peculiarities of the Qumran dualistic doctrine of the two ways and two spirits and the origins of “nature of Truth” and “nature of Evil” in the framework of biblical monotheism; features of Qumran theodicy. 4) Correlation of the Qumran doctrine of “human nature” and “virtue” with the Essene ethical teaching according to Philo of Alexandria’s treatise “On Every Virtuous One Is Free”, XII, 80–84. The article also analyses the key designations of community leaders and self-designations of community members in an organizational and educational context.
Anna S. Stepanova
The Herzen State Pedagogical University (Russia)
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 16.1 (2022) 172-190
Keywords: Aristoteles, Filipp Melanhton, Skovoroda, Tomaso Campanella, pansophia, principle «ars imitatur naturam».
Abstract. The article is devoted to the study of the role and modification of the Aristotelian principle of ars imitatur naturam in the formation of the concept of the Czech thinker, teacher, and theologian Jan Amos Comenius. The variety of approaches of Protestant thinkers to Aristotle's principle, born in the discussion, allowed Comenius to address it critically, perceiving it comprehensively and extending the concept of art to the sphere of education. Campanella's ideas moved Comenius to remove the veneer of indeterminacy from nature, promoting an understanding of it as a friendly and creative beginning. The author notes the peculiarity of Comenius' interpretation of this principle, giving it the meaning of universal nature-humanitarian mechanism which suited his concept of pan-sophia to the fullest extent. Comenius and G. Skovoroda, who developed the concepts of kinship and wisdom in the light of the ideas of enlightenment, thus laying the foundations of humanistic philosophy and pedagogy of the New Age and Enlightenment era, make an analogy between the interpretations of the Aristotelian thesis.
St. Petersburg State University (Russia)
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 16.1 (2022) 191-217
Keywords: homonyms, synonyms, paronyms, ancient logic, ancient grammar theory, Porphyry, Ammonius, John Philoponus, Simplicius, Olympiodorus, Dionysius Thrax.
Abstract. The subject of this article is the interpretation of the concepts “homonym”, “synonym” and “paronym” in the logic and grammatical theory of the Late Ancient / early Byzantine period (3rd–6th c.). Within the framework of the logical tradition, the theory of homonymy, synonymy and paronymy is developed, first of all, in the commentaries to Aristotle’s “Categories” written by Porphyry, Ammonius, Simplicius, etc., within the framework of grammatical theory – in the “Art of Grammar” by Dionysius of Thrace and its Byzantine scholia to it. Analysis of these texts shows that both disciplines paid great attention to these concepts: they were embedded in a broader terminological context; their definitions were refined and detailed; various methods of classification of homonyms and paronyms were developed. Many issues have been the subject of controversy and disagreement, for example, the problem of the relationship between metaphor, analogy and homonymy, or the methods of classification of homonyms. Significant disagreements persisted between the two disciplines: from the point of view of grammar and logic, all three concepts were interpreted differently, but the interpretation of synonymy differed most clearly. Contemporaries were aware of these contradictions between logic and grammar, noted and analyzed them.
St. Petersburg State University
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 16.1 (2022) 218-230
Keywords: Macedonian kingdom, Argead dynasty, numismatics, Thracians, Scythians.
Abstract. The article is devoted to the question of how the legend about the emergence of the Argead dynasty was formed. The work examines written ancient sources, as well as numismatics, which are associated with the legend of the appearance of the Argead dynasty. The author draws attention to the similarity of the Scythian, Thracian and Macedonian iconography of coins, as well as to the similarity of the evidence of the written tradition when describing the founding of dynasties. The author comes to the conclusion about the possible Thracian and Scythian influence on the formation of the myth about the origin of the Argeads.
Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University (Kaliningrad)
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 16.1 (2022) 231-239
Keywords: Julian the Apostate, paganism in the Roman Empire, chaldaism, neoplatonic theology.
Abstract. Julian the Apostate carried out his religious reforms, relying on the concept of religious piety, which he developed on the basis of the "Chaldean oracles" and contemporary Neoplatonism. His attempt to find a concordat with the Jewish communities fully fits into this concept. Having discovered the "Chaldean" origins of the religion of Abraham, Julian was able to include even the worship of Yahweh in the framework of neo-Platonic theology. The restoration of the Jerusalem temple was for him one of the elements of the renovation of divine-human communication. The lack of information about these events in medieval Jewish literature demonstrates that his attempt to include Judaism in the imperial religious ecumene was based on a misinterpretation of the Abrahamic type of religion.
Institute of philosophy and law SB RAS (Novosibirsk)
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 16.1 (2022) 240-253
Keywords: ancient epistemology, Plato, Meno’s paradox, G. Fine, knowledge.
Abstract. The article provides an overview of that parts of G. Fine's books – Essays in Ancient Epistemology (OUP, 2021) and The Possibility of Inquiry: Meno's Paradox from Socrates to Sextus (OUP, 2014) – which deal with Platonic epistemology. Our task is to show the main epistemological problems that are formed around the Meno's paradox or directly depend on it, and also to present the formulations of these problems in Fine’ own version in order to make these problems well recognizable in ancient philosophical discussions for the reader. The article examines the structure and the problematic content of Menon's paradox, and the technical vocabulary of G. Fine, which allows her to formulate the problematic content of ancient epistemology. As well it examines the number of epistemological problems: the propositionality of perception in Plato, the theory of two worlds in Plato and Aristotle, as well as certain parallels between Menon and Sisyphus, which all together make it possible to show that Meno's problematics is basic, shaping the epistemology in ancient philosophy both in Plato himself and after Plato.
Russian State University for the Humanities (Moscow)
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 16.1 (2022) 254-264
Keywords: Wilde, Plato, Oxford Platonism, aestheticism, art, imitation.
Abstract. The article examines the Platonism of Oscar Wilde, starting from his studies at Trinity College and Oxford, and how it was related to his aestheticism. Plato was one of the key figures for the so-called Oxford Hellenistic movement (1850–70s of the 19th century). In its context, the “Symposium” was read almost as a manifesto of a new aestheticism, an important part of which was homoeroticism. Wilde believed that Plato should be interpreted as a “critique of Beauty” and compared a philosopher of the Platonic school with a poet. At the same time, considering himself a Platonist, Wilde turned Plato upside down. The metaphor of the “Cave” remained relevant to him as well, and the Cave itself was understood in about the same way, viz. as a vulgar sensual life with its senseless utilitarianism, taking shadows for genuine reality. But while for Plato the exit from the Cave was associated with pure comprehension in the rarefied and, most importantly, extra-figurative space of merging oneself with the transcendent, and attaining genuine virtue by this outlook for genuine reality, for Wilde, the beautiful in itself was imagery par excellence (according to Plato, the world of eidolons, the lowest sphere of being), and imagery was art, and the possibility of virtue according to Wilde is precisely fidelity to art.
Novosibirsk State University (Russia)
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 16.1 (2022) 265-275
Keywords: Poetry of Sappho; “Hymn to Aphrodite”; Sappho’s erotic poetry, the cult of Aphrodite in Ancient Greece.
Abstract. The publication contains a new translation of Sappho's "Hymn to Aphrodite" (Sapph. Fr. 1) into Russian. The translation is based on the latest papyrological discoveries, and a recent edition of songs and fragments of Sappho, published by Camillo Neri and Frederico Cinti (2017). Translation is accompanied by a comprehensive scientific commentary.
Institute of Philosophy and Law SB RAS;
Novosibirsk State University (Russia)
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 16.1 (2022) 276-294
Keywords: Alexandrian library, Septuagint, Hellenistic Jewish philosophy.
Abstract. The "biblical origin" of the basic ideas of Hellenic philosophy. This idea, perhaps strange to the modern reader, was almost universally accepted in the first centuries of CE and goes back at least to Aristobulus and Philo of Alexandria. Lately this concept, very useful indeed in justifying philosophy and the legitimacy of its inclusion in the Judeo-Christian worldview, became quite widespread. Clement (the first Christian author to refer openly to Philo) does not doubt the simple fact that the Greek sages either borrowed their teachings directly from Moses and the Jewish ministers themselves, or received them from above as a revelation of the true God, which must therefore be no different from the law given to Moses. The purpose of this publication is to illustrate this aspect of ancient intellectual history by a selection of relevant sources.
Institute of Philosophy and Law SB RAS
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 16.1 (2022) 295-316
Keywords: Neoplatonism, Late Antiquity, Heraiscus, Asclepiadotus, sources of ancient philosophy.
Abstract. In the paper, I trace the evolution of the Neoplatonic school in Alexandria on the basis of select fragments from Damascius’ “Philosophical History,” translated into Russian for the first time. The fragments concern the Alexandrian intellectual scene of the second part of the fifth century (fragments 72–96 Athanassiadi). Damascius vividly presents the major philosophical figures of this period, such as Heraiscus, Asclepiades, Asclepiodoti (Senior and Junior), and Domninus. Most information is preserved about Asclepiodotus the Junior, who against the background of the general fascination of the Platonists with theurgy and other forms of philosophical religion, the practice of piety and, as a scientific component, theoretical mathematics, stands out for his penchant for empirical research, which could be applied to botany, biology, medicine, geology, for the study and development of technology, and even, if we believe Damascus' account that during his journey from Athens to Aphrodisias he "studied men", then psychology.
The Russian State University for the Humanities (Moscow)
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 16.1 (2022) 317-333
Keywords: Maximus of Tyre, Socrates, Plato, demonology.
Abstract. Maximus of Tyre (fl. late 2nd century ad) is most poorly and confusedly attested in ancient sources. The best testimony to be found is his extant collection of 41 Orationes, or Dissertationes, addressing a wide range of topics, including the issue of ‘Socrates’ daimonion’ (Or. 8–9), which has been also dealt with by Maximus’ fellow Platonists of the Middle stage Plutarchus of Chaeronea (46 – after 119), in De Socratis demonio, and Apuleius of Madauros (c. 124 – c. 170), in De deo Socratis. All of them, with slight variations, consider demons intermediary beings shuttling between heavens and earth, gods and humans; at one point, Maximus compares them to translators who ensure contacts between people of different cultures. Maximus’ Platonism mainly manifests in his attempts to mould his own writings in the spirit and style of Plato’s works. The style is paramount for Maximus, him being not only a Platonist, but also a prominent representative of the Second Sophistic. As an eclectic philosopher, he introduces into his writings sundry Aristotelean and Stoic threads interwoven with Platonic warp and woof. Revealing himself a widely educated person, Maximus shows a good knowledge of Plato as well as other ancient authors, whose many fragments are extant solely thanks to his quotations. Maximus is scarcely known in the Russian language: a few translations of the last century are based on an obsolescent edition. As an appendix, a new Russian translation of Or. 8–9 based on thoroughly corrected editions of Maximus’ text is provided.
REVIEWS AND BIBLIOGRAPHY
National Research University Higher School of Economics;
Institute for Strategy of Education Development of the Russian Academy of Education (Moscow)
Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University (Moscow)
National Research University Higher School of Economics;
Institute for Strategy of Education Development of the Russian Academy of Education (Moscow) firstname.lastname@example.org
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 16.1 (2022) 334-340
Keywords: history of philosophy, history of medicine, educational space of the city.
Abstract. The article is a brief overview of the speeches and discussions that took place at the first academic seminar on the history of pedagogical culture, which was organized at the Department of Humanities of the Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University and took place on November 8, 2021.The review aims to provide a representation of the participants' papers and areas of discussion that arose from questions to the papers and / or reflections on the results of the seminar, as well as to inform the reader with some materials of interdisciplinary research on the phenomenology and anthropology of urban educational space.
St. Petersburg State University
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 16.1 (2022) 341-359
Keywords: Early Christianity, Hagiography, Martyrdom, Persecutions, Bibliography.
Abstract. The purpose of the article is to give an overview of the main trends in the study of Early Christian Martyrdoms of the 2–4 centuries in modern science. The first part enumerates new editions of hagiographic texts. The second part analyzes modern studies that touch upon such topics as the genesis of early Christian martyrdom, psychoanalytic approaches to this phenomenon, the role of martyrdom in the formation of the historical memory of Christians, hagiographic works in the context of Roman spectacles, the Second sophistry and ancient rhetoric, and other methods of studying these texts.
Mikhail A. Vedeshkin
Institute of World History RAS; RANEPA
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 16.1 (2022) 360-369
Key words: Late Antiquity, Late Roman Empire, Late Antique education, Neoplatonism, Sosipatra, Eunapius of Sardis, "The Lives of Philosophers and Sophists", Educational Space of a Late Antique City.
Abstract. A review of Marx, H. (2021) Sosipatra of Pergamum: Philosopher and Oracle. New York: Oxford University Press. 152 p.
M.I. Glinka Novosibirsk State Conservatoire
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 16.1 (2022) 370-406
Keywords: natural overtone series, tetrachord, ancient musical system, Pythagorean system, monochord, Helikon, Pythagoras, Archytos, Eratosthenes, Aristoxenus, Ptolemy.
Abstract. Music theory, which developed in the course of a single musical-mathematical-astronomical synthesis, does not give a direct answer to the question posed – "did the ancient Greeks know the natural overtone series" as a reasonable system. Nevertheless, the musical theory in the preserved sources-original works, their fragments, compilations – came quite close to understanding of the existening of the phenomenon much later called "natural overtone series". The article attempts to find a correspondence between individual mathematically calculated intervals, the main system-forming generic tetrachordal structures (diaton, chroma, enharmony) and segments of the natural overtone series as evidence of the unity of the scientific and empirical (auditory) approach to achieving the best sound of Music, universal Harmony. The article is a revised and expanded version of the Lecture for students and teachers of conservatories "Musical acoustics in the works of ancient scientists" (Novosibirsk, 2009).