ΣΧΟΛΗ
Ancient Philosophy
and the Classical Tradition

A Journal of the Centre for Ancient Philosophy
and the Classical Tradition

ISSN 1995-4328 (Print) ISSN 1995-4336 (Online)

ARTICLES

Maya Petrova
Institute of World History, Russian Academy of Sciences (Moscow), beionyt@mail.ru
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 10.2 (2016) 366–376
Keywords: the Aristotelian tradition, dreams, interpretation, William of Conches.
Abstract. The paper is dedicated to the problem of perception of Greek knowledge in the Middle Ages. How early it could have begun; to what extent and in what form the ingredients of Aristotle’s theories began to appear in the texts of the European medieval authors on dreams, visions and the occurrence of sleep? The theories of William of Conches (De phil. mundi XXI–XXII), including his glosses on Macrobius’ Commentary on the ‘Dream of Scipio’, and ps.-Augustine (De sp. et an. XXV) are analyzed. It is shown that their texts contain the synthesis of different, non-direct psychological and physiological Greek concepts, in which one can see not only the influence of Platonic and Neoplatonic doctrines, but also the ingredients of the Aristotelian theories.

Igor Tantlevskij
St. Petersburg State University, Russia, tantigor@mail.wplus.net
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 10.2 (2016) 377–381
Keywords: Spinoza, Natura naturans, Natura naturata, two Hebrew terms for the “nature”: tôleḏeṯ / tôlāḏāh and ṭeḇaʿ.
Abstract. The author assumes that Spinoza correlated his notion Natura naturans with Hebrew term tôleḏeṯ / tôlāḏāh (var.: tôlāḏ), i.e., according to its root, the “Nature as begetting”; as for his notion Natura naturata, he could correlate it with the Hebrew term ṭeḇaʿ, i.e., according to its root, the “Nature as imprint”.

Sergey Avanesov
Tomsk State University, Tomsk State Pedagogical University, iskiteam@yandex.ru
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 10.2 (2016) 382–394
Keywords: ancient philosophy, Aristotle, theory, knowledge, vision.
Abstract. In this article, I continue to study the problem of vision in connection with philosophical comprehension of truth in antiquity. I analyze the topic of the relation between knowledge and vision in the philosophical thought of Aristotle. I come to the conclusion that in Aristotle’s philosophy there is an obvious trend of optical understanding of the process of comprehension of the essence of being as a sight of its essence; the idea of knowledge as a vision of the truth and the notion of a knowledgeable person as the one who sees the real state of affairs; the doctrine of practical orientation of a good action as a contemplation of the ultimate goal by “eye of the soul”.

Alexandra Anikina
Novosibirsk State University, Russia, lieda27@gmail.com
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 10.2 (2016) 395–401
Keywords: memory, remembering, recollection, history, philosophy, eikôn, typos.
Abstract. A short treatise “On Memory and Recollection” which constitutes a part of Aristotelian Parva naturalia serves for P. Ricoeur as one of the starting points of his concept of memory as the matrix of history. He bases his concept on such properties of memory, marked in the treatise, as indispensability of a temporal interval between the acts of perception and remembrance, the necessity of precedence of "what" in memories, etc. The most important point for Ricoeur is Aristotelian development of the metaphor of eikôn: its division on the picture and the object it represents, as well as the contradiction with the metaphor of typos (an offprint) which arises from such an interpretation of eikôn.

Aleksandr Khlebalin
Novosibirsk State University, Institute of philosophy and law, Novosibirsk, Russia
sasha_khl@mail.ru
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 10.2 (2016) 402–408
Keywords: definition, axiom, truth, Euclid’s geometry, G. Frege.
Abstract. Based on reconstruction G. Frege’s project for foundation of axiomatic method and his treatment of the role of definitions in justification of axiomatic system, in the article I discuss the role of definitions in Euclid's axiomatic in their function of elucidations, in Fregan terms.

Irina Protopopova
Russian State University for the Humanities, Moscow, plotinus70@gmail.com
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 10.2 (2016) 409–418
Keywords: Plato, dialogue Symposium, Socrates, proverb, ὑβρις, inversion, erotic, dialectic.
Abstract. The article analyzes the meaning of a passage from Plato's dialogue Symposium, where Socrates modifies ("spoils") the proverb about “the good ones”, who go to the feast without an invitation (Smp. 174a3-c7). The author indicates the textual problems related to this proverb and notes at least two versions of it in existence in Plato's time. The main attention is paid to these two questions: 1) which version of the proverb and how exactly does Socrates distort, and, according to him, also did Homer? 2) what point, above all a philosophical one, may be traced in this passage, given the context of the dialogue as a whole? The author offers her own interpretation based on the view that the leitmotif of the dialogue is the theme of ὑβρις put in terms of inversion (including turns and reversals in wordings and actions of the characters, Socrates above all. Appraising the functions of this passage's keywords, διαφθείρω, μεταβάλλω, and ὑβρίζω, in the Symposium and other dialogues of Plato, the author shows how this theme is reflected in a "philosophical-erotic" semantics of the Symposium, which is closely associated here with dialectics.

Anna Afonasina
Tomsk State Pedagogical University, Novosibirsk State University, Russia, afonasina@gmail.com
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 10.2 (2016) 419–436
Keywords: clepsydra, Amphiaraus, ancient medicine, measuring, standards, Hippocratic corpus, Herophilus, Galen.
Abstract. The article discusses an episode in the universal history of metrology and standardization. On the basis of literary testimonies and archeological data the author first outlines the history of development of various types of the water clocks, clepsydra. Special attention is paid to the usage of clepsydra in public life (esp. in legal proceeding) and in medical practice. Then, considering the massive water clock from the sanctuary of the healer-god Amphiaraus in Oropos author shows that in the 4th cent. BCE the water clocks became an essential part of social life, and demonstrates the ways they calibrated the device according to a 24-hours scale. The author suggests that the massive water clock, designed for continuous measuring of time, subdivided at equal hours, was built at the sanctuary of Amphiaraus for medical purposes. Such hypothesis can be confirmed by a series of passages from the Hippocratic corpus, where the word “hour” is actually introduced, as well as by two more testimonies from the medical practice of Herophilus and Galen.

Vitaly Tselishchev
Novosibirsk State University, Institute of philosophy and law, Novosibirsk, Russia, leitval@gmail.com
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 10.2 (2016) 437–451
Keywords: model-theoretic argument, semantical redundancy, Putnam, interpretation, understanding, “Pythagorean worlds”.
Abstract. The problem of semantical redundancy is discussed in the light of Putnam’s model-theoretic argument and recent criticism of this argument, set against classical background.

Valery Surovtsev
Tomsk State University, Tomsk State Pedagogical University, Tomsk Scientific Center, Russia, surovtsev1964@mail.ru
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 10.2 (2016) 452–470
Keywords: Stoic logic, to lekton, G. Frege, Sinn, semantic theory, axiōma, Gedanke, comparative studies, ancient and contemporary logic, ontological status.
Abstract. As previously (ΣΧΟΛΗ 9.2 [2015] 241–252) the article deals with the Stoic category to lekton and G. Frege’s category of Sinn. I explicate some formal features of these categories, which demonstrate the similarity of the Stoic and the Fregean logical theories. In particular, I demonstrate that the concept of “complete lekton” (axiōma) in the Stoic doctrine has the same structure as the concept of thought (Gedanke) in Frege’s semantic theory. However, the formal structural similarity between to lekton and Sinn does not presupposes the ontological similarities in these theories.

Vitaly Ogleznev
Tomsk State University, ogleznev82@mail.ru
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 10.2 (2016) 471–482
Keywords: Aristotle, action, movement, behavior, conduct, intention, responsibility, descriptive and ascriptive approaches.
Abstract: This essay is concerned with different approaches to the elucidation of action. It explicates the influence of Aristotle’s theory of action on the development of the modern philosophy of action, provided, first of all, by Reductionist and Causalist’s points of view. The author argues that the denial of the physical and psychological components of the action allows to conclude, firstly, that action is a social concept, logically dependent on the accepted rules of conduct; secondly, that it is fundamentally not descriptive, but ascriptive in its character; and thirdly, that it is a defeasible concept to be defined through exceptions and not by a set of necessary and sufficient conditions whether physical or psychological.

Elizaveta Speshilova
Tomsk State University, e.speshilova@yandex.ru
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 10.2 (2016) 483–489
Keywords: proper name, Aristotle, analytic philosophy, the theory of descriptions, the theory of direct reference.
Abstract. The article discusses the problem of reference of proper names on the example of name Aris¬totle. I analyze the controversy between the theory of descriptions and the theory of direct reference and note that the theory of descriptions faces some difficulties, while the historical explanation theory (as a variant of the theory of direct reference) proposed by K. Donnellan successfully solves the problem.

Anton Didikin
Tomsk State University, Institute of Philosophy and Law, Russia, abdidikin@bk.ru
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 10.2 (2016) 490–494
Keywords: Aristotle, normativism, metaphysics, ethic, politics, philosophy of law.
Abstract. In a short note, the author outlines a series of Hans Kelsen’s studies dedicated to Ancient political thought, esp. his The Philosophy of Aristotle and Hellenic-Macedonian Policy. He believes that these relatively neglected minor studies of the famous philosopher of law could still be of interest to contemporary classicists and historians of philosophy.

Dmitry Bogatyrev
The Russian Christian Humanitarian Academy, Russia, rector@rhga.ru
Inna Romanenko
The Herzen State Pedagogical University, St. Petersburg State University, Russia, ir_romanenko@rambler.ru
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 10.2 (2016) 495–511
Keywords: educational paradigm, religious grounds, intuition, discourse, exegesis, apology, rationality, experiment, post-secular.
Abstract: Having conventionally divided European history into Ancient, Medieval, Modern and Present times, often associated with predominance of, respectively, cosmocentrism, theocentrism and anthropocentrism, in the article we discuss the educational paradigms, which seems to correspond with them, namely: intuitive and discursive; exegetical and apologetic; rational and experimental, and, finally, existential and personal. We take these educational paradigms as both the instruments of accumulating of traditional values and “generative models” for personal development of individuals of a given epoch. A particular attention is given to religious foundations of the educational paradigms.

Sergey Kulikov
Tomsk State Pedagogical University, kulikovsb@tspu.edu.ru
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 10.2 (2016) 512–520
Keywords: time, movement, immobility, measurement, ancient legacy, Aristotle, naturalism, anti-naturalism.
Abstract. In the article, I discuss the Heideggerian criticism of the Aristotelian concept of time. Heidegger thought that it was Aristotle who is to be blamed for so-called “ordinary” interpretation of time. Later on, Augustine developed this interpretation, while Kant and Hegel brought it to a logical end. The author observes that even if the post-Aristotelian thought and Hegel as its embodiment understood time in many respects naturalistically, we might trace both naturalistic and anti-naturalistic ways of interpretation of time in Aristotle. It appears therefore that Aristotle had also laid the foundations of existential comprehension of time, having influenced thereby the formation of the European rationality in all variety of its forms and manifestations.

Svetlana Demina
Alexander and Nikolay Stoletovs Vladimir State University, Russia, ist-drev@yandex.ru
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 10.2 (2016) 521–526
Keywords: Ancient Rome, Cicero, love, amor.
Abstract.This article investigates Cicero’s thoughts about love. According to this Roman philosopher a disposition to love is given to people by nature. He defines love (amor) as recognition of importance of another person per se and an aspiration to do anything good for him unselfishly. Love as a philosophical category allows Cicero to explain a person’s behavior, to disclose importance of a person for another person, to display a moral similarity of both loving persons as well as to explain unification of people in associations of different levels (matrimonial and family relations, friendship, neighborhood, citizenship, nationality, humankind). In Cicero’s opinion, the widespread understanding of love as a passion is erroneous and leads to violation of moral and legal norms, therefore Cicero’s attitude to this passion is extremely negative.

Victoria Pichugina
Volgograd State Socio-Pedagocical University, Pichugina_V@mail.ru
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 10.2 (2016) 527–549
Keywords: re-education, the hierarchy of virtues in old Greek drama.
Abstract. By comparison of separate dialogues in the Medea we isolate passages where Euripides inform us about contemporary educational reality. In his Medea, Euripides presents the hierarchy of virtues, which has to be accepted by any ‘educated’ person. Having changed the mythological plot and highlighted these changes by a number of innovative artistic touches, Euripides shows process and result of re-education of Medea-daughter, Medea-wife and Medea-mother who seeks to make understand others and bring herself to reason, being placed in the circumstances which force her to divide between the «one’s own» and the «others».

Evgeny Nayman
Tomsk State University, Tomsk State Pedagogical University, Tomsk Scientific Center SB RAS, Institute of Development of Education Systems RAE, enyman17@rambler.ru
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 10.2 (2016) 550–558
Keywords: Cynics, non-verbal communication, chreia, performance, theatricality, rhetoric, transgressive communication.
Abstract. This article focuses on the Cynic strategies of communication and on the problems of interpretation of Cynicism. The author uses Goffman’s theory of self-production, which treats a life as a theatrical performance, and applies some ideas of sociolinguistics and social anthropology to the analysis of Cynicism as a rhetorical practice. The theatricality of Cynical behaviour appears in their careful self-presentation and stylised of their lifestyle, which may be analysed as the exercise of a philosophical rhetoric. The article rests on the assumption that the most significant points of Cynicism are theatricality, use of non-verbal communication and transgressive forms of communication, and preference for such a literary form as chreia. Theatricality can take place in any stylistic register, but the author has concentrated on non-verbal elements in Cynic communication. The author analyses the Cynics’ rhetoric using the modern groundbreaking studies of Donald Lateiner and Robert Branham. The article analyses the Cynic performances, the interactions of Cynics with the public environment, and their use of eating and physical attributes to mark their philosophical position. The author examines Diogen’s use of transgressive non-verbal communication, paying special attention to his conscious use of the body for philosophical purposes. The analysis demonstrates that bodily processes are used as forms of symbolic action, while non-verbal media are designed to strengthen the effect of verbal language.

Sergey Kocherov
National research University «Higher school of Economics» – Nizhny Novgorod, kocherov@yandex.ru
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 10.2 (2016) 559–570
Keywords: the worldview of Marcus Aurelius, the internal dialogue, the stoic sage, the fulfillment of duty to the World and Rome.
Abstract. The article is aimed to confute the belief held about the nature of the worldview of Marcus Aurelius as pessimistic. The analysis of the “Meditations” demonstrates that the text represents a dialogue between a Stoic sage and an ordinary man, Marcus Aurelius being in the guise of both. The article proves that the guidance of the philosopher king is positive in its nature, calling one to fulfill manfully his duties aimed at the welfare of the World and Rome while manifesting love to people and showing no fear of failure, suffering or death. I conclude that a comprehensive analysis of the “Meditations” of the Roman emperor, which contains both the historical and existential background of his personality, is still necessary.

Oksana Y. Goncharko, goncharko_oksana@mail.ru
Dmitry A. Chernoglazov, d_chernoglazov@mail.ru
Saint Petersburg State University
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 10.2 (2016) 571–582
Keywords: history of logic, medieval logic, platonic dialogue, byzantine philosophy, byzantine literature, Komnenian renaissance.
Abstract. The dialogue “Xenedemos, or Voices” is a little-known philosophical work by Theodoros Prodromos, an outstanding 12th century Byzantine writer. The objective of the paper is to reveal, who of Byzantine intellectuals of the time could serve as prototypes of the main protagonists of the dialogue. The historical and logical content of “Xenedemos” is analysed. It is argued that its main character, named Theokles, encompasses crucial features of Michael Psellos and John Italos.

Pavel Butakov
Tomsk State University, Institute of Philosophy and Law, Novosibirsk, Russia pavelbutakov@academ.org
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 10.2 (2016) 583–591
Keywords: New Testament, textual criticism, Byzantine type, Alexandrian type, thoroughgoing eclecticism, Eucharist, early church history.
Abstract. Available manuscripts of Paul’s First Epistle to the Corinthians have a variant reading of Jesus’ words at the Last Supper in 11:24. The longer reading contains “take, eat” while the shorter reading does not. The two readings have a noticeable difference in meaning. The longer one highlights the individual value of the Eucharist; the shorter version, however, favors its institutional significance. The existence of both readings can be interpreted as a witness to an ideological dynamics in the early church. Depending on which of the two readings is considered prior, the church history would be seen either as an increase of clerical authority, or as an increase of value of the individual.

Dmitry Kurdybaylo and Ivan Gerasimov
Saint-Petersburg State University, Russian Christian Academy for Humanities, St Petersburg, Russia, theoreo@yandex.ru; teran48@ya.ru
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 10.2 (2016) 592–607
Keywords: symbol, allegory, hermeneutics, Bible exegetics, philosophy of language, semiotics, ancient philosophy, the School of Alexandria, Ante-Nicene theology.
Abstract. The use of term σύμβολον in Clement’s writings is problematic because of differences between common doctrine of symbol and symbolism expressed by Clement almost theoretically, and particular examples of symbolism and allegoric exegesis, where Clement’s wording and underlying conceptions are strongly dependent on the relevant contexts. In order to bring the most instances of σύμβολον in a system we propose some classifications. Firstly, according to their function, we distinguish ‘protective,’ ‘anagogic,’ and ‘manifestative’ symbols; secondly, according to the contexts in which they predominantly appear, such as the Pythagorean tradition, Greek Mysteries, Egyptian religion and hieroglyphic script, and extracts from the Greek grammarians; finally, in the context of Biblical exegesis, where one can distinguish instances of typology, morally instructive allegory and symbolism per se. In the latter case the nature of symbol is constituted by Divine Logos who “signifies the invisible link between earth and heaven.” Such a reading clarifies the ontological importance of symbolism for Clement’s metaphysics and philosophy, and helps to explain some difficulties in Clement’s writings actual for Western theology.

Sergey Shevtsov
I. I. Mechnikov Odessa National University
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 10.2 (2016) 608–625
Keywords: law, person, Orthodoxy, The Kingdom Of God, feeling of law, power, intuition, experience, system, Sophia.
Abstract. The article considers the existing issues of Vladimir Solovyov’s law philosophy. The author uses a recent monograph by Y. Pribytkova on the same subject as a starting point. In this monograph its author attempts to show the historical and philosophical aspects of the doctrine of this great Russian philosopher, while her denial of the basic Solovyov’s arguments significantly lessen the value of the overall inference. The present writer suggests an alternative approach: instead of picking out individual points of the doctrine or keeping it as a whole, I prefer to start from the current legal issues and isolate those elements of Vladimir Solovyov’s doctrines that could become the foundation on a modern philosophy of law. The author concludes that such elements are of high importance for both law and the connection between law and personality.

Dmitry Balalykin
The I. M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Institute of World History, Russia, shok@nmt.msk.ru
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 10.2 (2016) 626–658
Keywords: Galen, history of medicine, Stoic, empiricist doctors
Abstract. An analysis of the second book of the treatise De placitis Hippocratis et Platonis shows that Galen consistently builds his argument in a polemic with his opponents, empiricist doctors, on the basis of data obtained as a result of systematic anatomical dissections that can be considered the basis of “experiment” in ancient medicine. Galen's unique thinking manifests itself primarily in his synthetic approach to the formation of the theory of medical knowledge: he borrows the techniques necessary for carrying out tasks from different systems of natural philosophy, constantly rechecking their correctness on the help of extensive “experimental” data, such as the results of autopsies as well as anatomical and clinical observations. According to the author, his extensive polemic with the Stoics has an exclusively applied nature, as their philosophical views formed the basis of the empiricist natural philosophy. In the article, I raise the question of the relation between early Stoic ideas about the methods of knowledge with empiricist doctors' medical practice and their views on general pathology.

Igor Berestov
Tomsk State University, Institute of Philosophy and Law, Novosibirsk, Russia
berestoviv@yandex.ru
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 10.2 (2016) 659–670
Keywords: Gorgias, On Non-Being, Theaetetus, relativism about truth, intentional act, intentional object, intentional identity, mental holism, fine-grained beliefs, narrow content.
Abstract. We show that Protagoras could prove his homo mensura thesis by means of two statements ascending to Parmenides. The first statement asserts that any complex (or whole) intentional object can be grasped only “all at once”, and not part by part. The second statement asserts that any intentional act is identical to its content. We can deduce from these two statements that any different intentional acts are always directed to different intentional objects. This is even more radical thesis than “relativism about truth”, which is traditionally ascribed to Protagoras: any proposition is true iff it belongs to the subject’s system of believes. In conclusion, we show that not only the homo mensura thesis can be interpreted as a consequence of the above provisions of Parmenides, but certain Gorgias’ statements can also be considered in a similar way.

Dmitry A. Shcheglov
Saint Petersburg Branch of the Institute for the History of Science
and Technology, shcheglov@yandex.ru
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 10.2 (2016) 671–698
Keywords: ancient geography, ancient cartography, ancient periploi, Claudius Ptolemy, Timosthenes, Eratosthenes, Artemidorus of Ephesus, Marcus Terentius Varro, Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, Isidore of Charax, Pliny, Periplus Ponti Euxini.
Abstract. Ptolemy’s map is for the first time compared with the data on the length of the coastlines transmitted by ancient periploi. As a result, many close coincidences are traced between them, showing that Ptolemy’s map was much more heavily based on these or similar peripli than it has been assumed until now. Additionally, the influence of Ptolemy’s underestimated value for the circumference of the Earth on his map is revealed. Namely, two interrelated distortions are observed to result from this error. First, coasts oriented meridionally were compressed in comparison with the distances recorded in periploi. Second, this compression was compensated by proportional stretching of adjacent coasts oriented latitudinally. In particular, these findings suggest a simple explanation for the strange shape of the Caspian Sea on Ptolemy’s map. See Supplement.

Irina Konovalova
Institute of World History RAS, Moscow, Russia, irina_konovalova@mail.ru
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 10.2 (2016) 699–709
Keywords: geography, cartography, tradition, Ptolemy, medieval Islamic geocartography.
Abstract. The article is devoted to the peculiarities of perception and the development of scientific ideas in a particular society. This problem is considered on the example of geocartographical ideas of Ptolemy, formed in the late Hellenistic period, in the Middle Ages experienced a rebirth in the context of a completely different cultural traditions, namely in the Islamic society, and then in the early Modern period continued to develop in different historical conditions — in Europe. The article shows that in the Islamic world two directions of the perception of Ptolemaic ideas have been formed. The first one can be called a proper continuity, which provided the development of scientific ideas as such; the results achieved by the scientists of the Caliphate in this direction have become known to the world science and subsequently received further development in the works of European cartographers. At the same time the development of another direction, that adapted the Ptolemaic ideas to the needs of the educated classes of the Islamic society, can be traced; results of these activities, which facilitated the absorption of scientific tradition in terms of the Islamic culture, has not gone beyond the Islamic cultural circle.

TRANSLATIONS

Eugene Afonasin
Institute of World History (Moscow); Institute of philosophy and law (Novosibirsk), afonasin@gmail.com
Language: Russian
ΣΧΟΛΗ 10.2 (2016) 710–732
Keywords: metaphysics, its foundation and ancient critics, the history of exact and natural sciences, empirical method.
Abstract. Cicero (De natura deorum 1.13.35), Clement of Alexandria (Protrepticus 5.58) as well as Proclus (In Timaeus 35А) inform us that Theophrastus [372–287 BCE] inclined to identify the god and the sky (the stars are animated therefore divine). In the paper we will see that, indeed, the student of Aristotle frequently professes ideas that would surprise the philosopher of Stagira. For instance, he frequently insists that the kosmos is a living and ordered universe (the whole), and its innate movement is something which cannot be explained with the help of hand-made teleological constructions, such as the first mover. The analysis of the Metaphysics is supplemented in the paper by observations based on Theophrastus’ (Syriac) Meteorology and a selection of the fragments of his lost scientific works. The Metaphysics is translated into Russian for the first time.

Eugene Afonasin
Institute of World History (Moscow); Institute of philosophy and law (Novosibirsk), afonasin@gmail.com
Language: Russian
ΣΧΟΛΗ 10.2 (2016) 733–753
Keywords: metaphysics, the history of exact and natural sciences, empirical method, the first mover, the mechanics of movement.Abstract. An annotated translation of Aristotle’s short treatise De motu animalium is designed to supplement a discussion of Theophrastus’ Metaphysics, Meteorology and a selection of the fragments of his lost scientific works, eps. Theophrastus’ critique of Aristotelian teleology and the idea of the first mover (published in this issue of the journal). The treatise is translated into Russian for the first time.

Alexander Sanzhenakov
Institute of Philosophy and law, Russia, sanzhenakov@gmail.com
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 10.2 (2016) 754–777
Keywords: Aristotle, eclectics, ancient ethics, virtue, vice, translations.
Abstract. This paper is divided into three sections: an introduction, a translation of Pseudo-Aristotelian treatise “On Virtues and Vices” (De virtutibus et vitiis), and a commentary to this text. In the introduction, the author briefly describes textual tradition, critical editions and available translations of the treatise in European languages. The major issue, discussed in the introduction, concerns the question of authenticity and authorship of the treatise. Arguments by E. Zeller, C. Schuchhardt, F. Susemihl, E. Schmidt, who seriously questioned the authenticity of the text, are contrasted with the opinion of P. Simpson, who insisted on its authenticity. The author of the present work is inclined to think that the treatise is a later composition. Respective arguments are presented in length in the commentary, where the author attempts to place the treatise in the context of the ethical works of the Corpus Aristotelicum, on the one hand, and this of the later Hellenistic developments, on the other.

REVIEWS

Vitaly Tselishchev
Novosibirsk State University, Institute of philosophy and law, Novosibirsk, Russia, leitval@gmail.com
A review of Netz, Reviel. Ludic Proof: Greek Mathematics and the Alexandrian Aesthetic.
Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009. 255 pp.
Language: Russian
Issue: ΣΧΟΛΗ 10.2 (2016) 778–788
Keywords: Hellenistic mathematics, scientific style, style of literature, narrative strategy, carnivalesque profusion of detail, mosaic form, Hellenistic poetry.
Abstract. This book represents a new departure in science studies: an analysis of a scientific style of writing, situating it within the context of the contemporary style of literature. Its philosophical significance is that it provides a novel way of making sense of the notion of a scientific style. For the first time, the Hellenistic mathematical corpus - one of the most substantial extant for the period - is placed centre-stage in the discussion of Hellenistic culture as a whole. Professor Netz argues that Hellenistic mathematical writings adopt a narrative strategy based on surprise, a compositional form based on a mosaic of apparently unrelated elements, and a carnivalesque profusion of detail. He further investigates how such stylistic preferences derive from, and throw light on, the style of Hellenistic poetry. This important book will be welcomed by all scholars of Hellenistic civilization as well as historians of ancient science and Western mathematics.

ΣΧΟΛΗ, Vol. 10, Issue 2, complete text

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